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variables as input (e. In many vadose zone hydrological studies, it is imperative that the al., 1998). Far fewer alternatives exist for unsaturated soil's unsaturated hydraulic conductivity is known. Frequently, the Mualem–van Genuchten model (MVG) is used for this purpose be-hydraulic conductivity. Although some pedotransfer cause it allows prediction of(More)
In this work a minimum cost path approach is adopted to extract coronary artery centerlines from CTA data. The algorithm depends on the manual definition of the start and end point of the vessel. The cost image used in the minimal cost path approach is based on a vesselness measure and a smooth window function on intensity. In the majority of the cases the(More)
[1] A Shan-Chen–type multiphase lattice Boltzmann (LB) model was applied to observed computed microtomography data from water-air and water-Soltrol displacement experiments in a glass bead porous medium. Analysis of the Bond, Reynolds, and Capillary numbers for these systems showed that capillary forces were dominant removing the need to model viscous,(More)
In Europe, secondary particulate matter (PM) comprises 50% or more of PM 2.5. To reduce PM concentrations requires lowering precursor emissions. Since the 1980s, SO(2) emissions have decreased by more than 60%, while particle concentrations have decreased less. NO(x) and NH(3) emissions have decreased slightly. The role of ammonia in particle formation is(More)
Aerosol optical depths (AOD) and Angström coefficients over Europe were retrieved using data from the ATSR-2 radiometer on board the ESA satellite ERS-2, for August 1997. Taking advantage of the nadir and forward view of the ATSR-2, the dual view algorithm was used over land to eliminate the influence of the surface reflection. Over sea the AOD was(More)
Nitrate is an important component of fine aerosols in Europe. We present a model simulation for the year 1995 in which we account for the formation of the ammonium nitrate, a semi volatile component. For this purpose, LOTOS, a chemistry-transport model of intermediate complexity, was extended with a thermodynamic equilibrium module and 5 additional relevant(More)
[1] While pedotransfer functions (PTFs) have long been applied to estimate soil hydraulic parameters for unsaturated flow and solute transport modeling, the uncertainty associated with the estimates is often ignored. The objective of this study is to evaluate uncertainty of the PTF-estimated soil hydraulic parameters and its effect on numerical simulation(More)
[1] Feedbacks among vegetation dynamics, pedogenesis, and topographic development affect the " critical zone " —the living filter for Earth's hydrologic, biogeochemical, and rock/ sediment cycles. Assessing the importance of such feedbacks, which may be particularly pronounced in water-limited systems, remains a fundamental interdisciplinary challenge. The(More)
An explanatory model study is presented on semi-volatile secondary inorganic aerosols on three clear days in May 2008 during the IMPACT campaign at the Cabauw tower in the Netherlands. A single column model in combination with the equilibrium aerosol model ISORROPIA is used. This model uses surface observations from IMPACT and calculates the gas-aerosol(More)