Marcel Filoche

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The geometry and dimensions of branched structures such as blood vessels or airways are important factors in determining the efficiency of physiological processes. It has been shown that fractal trees can be space filling and can ensure minimal dissipation. The bronchial tree of most mammalian lungs is a good example of an efficient distribution system with(More)
Peripheral airways combine branched tubes for ventilation with the gas exchanging alveoli in the pulmonary acini, defined as the complex of airways supplied by one first order respiratory or transitional bronchiole. In this part, the replenishment of oxygen at the alveolar surface occurs by a combination of convective air flow with diffusion of oxygen in(More)
It has recently been shown that the acinus can have a reduced efficiency due to a "screening effect" governed by the ratio of oxygen diffusivity to membrane permeability, the gas flow velocity, as well as the size and configuration of the acinus. We present here a top to bottom calculation of the functioning of a machine acinus at exercise that takes this(More)
The transfer of oxygen from air to blood in the lung involves three processes: ventilation through the airways, diffusion of oxygen in the air phase to the alveolar surface, and finally diffusion through tissue into the capillary blood. The latter two steps occur in the acinus, where the alveolar gas-exchange surface is arranged along the last few(More)
Gas exchange at the acinar level involves several physico-chemical phenomena within a complex geometry. A gas transport model, which takes into account both the diffusion into the acinus and the diffusion across the alveolar membrane, is used to understand gas mixing in realistic systems. It is first shown that the behaviour of the system, computed on model(More)
An exact "branch by branch" calculation of the diffusional flux is proposed for partially absorbed random walks on arbitrary tree structures. In the particular case of symmetric trees, an explicit analytical expression is found which is valid whatever the size of the tree. Its application to the respiratory phenomena in pulmonary acini gives an analytical(More)
The possibility to renormalize random walks is used to study numerically the oxygen diffusion and permeation in the acinus, the diffusion cell terminating the mammalian airway tree. This is done in a 3D tree structure which can be studied from its topology only. The method is applied to the human acinus real morphology as studied by Haefeli-Bleuer and(More)
The present study is concerned with the properties of 2D shallow cavities having an irregular boundary. The eigenmodes are calculated numerically on various examples, and it is shown first that, whatever the shape and characteristic sizes of the boundary, irregularity always induces an increase of localized eigenmodes and a global decrease of the existence(More)
We present a stream-tube model of oxygen exchange inside a human placenta functional unit (a placentone). The effect of villi density on oxygen transfer efficiency is assessed by numerically solving the diffusion-convection equation in a 2D+1D geometry for a wide range of villi densities. For each set of physiological parameters, we observe the existence of(More)
The multifractal properties of the harmonic measure on quadratic and cubic Koch boundaries are studied with the help of a new fast random walk algorithm adapted to these fractal geometries. The conjectural logarithmic development of local multifractal exponents is guessed for regular fractals and checked by extensive numerical simulations. This development(More)