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Relaxin, a peptide hormone secreted by the corpus luteum during pregnancy, exerts actions on reproductive tissues such as the pubic symphysis, uterus, and cervix. It may also influence body fluid balance by actions on the brain to stimulate thirst and vasopressin secretion. We mapped the sites in the brain that are activated by i.v. infusion of a dipsogenic(More)
Microorganisms tend to form biofilms on surfaces, thereby causing deterioration of the underlaying material. In addition, biofilm is a potential health risk to humans. Therefore, microorganism growth is not only an issue on Earth but also in manned space habitats like the International Space Station (ISS). The aim of the study was to identify physiological(More)
This study focused on the effects of short-term microgravity (22 s) on the gene expression and morphology of endothelial cells (ECs) and evaluated gravisensitive signaling elements. ECs were investigated during four German Space Agency (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt) parabolic flight campaigns. Hoechst 33342 and acridine orange/ethidium bromide(More)
Voltage clamp measurements reveal important insights into the activity of membrane ion channels. While conventional voltage clamp systems are available for laboratory studies, these instruments are generally unsuitable for more rugged operating environments. In this study, we present a non-invasive microfluidic voltage clamp system developed for the use(More)
Fibroblast growth factors interact with appropriate endothelial cell (EC) surface receptors and initiate intracellular signal cascades, which participate in modulating blood vessel growth. EC, upon exposure to basic fibroblast growth factors (bFGFs) undergo profound functional alterations, which depend on their actual sensitivity and involve gene expression(More)
Prolactin (PRL) is one of the most versatile hormones in the mammalian body affecting reproductive, sexual, metabolic, immune, and other functions. It is therefore not surprising that the neural control of PRL secretion is complex, involving the coordinated actions of several hypothalamic nuclei. A plethora of experimental data exists on the hypothalamic(More)
The neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was tested for its ability to promote the survival and regulation of expression of phenotypic markers of dopaminergic, serotonergic, and GABAergic neurons in free-floating roller tube cultures of human fetal ventral mesencephalon. This culture system contains neurons of the anlage of the substantia(More)
BACKGROUND Prolactin (PRL) is one of the most versatile hormones in the mammalian body, affecting reproductive, sexual and other functions. In rats, mating or vaginocervical stimulation activates a characteristic PRL secretory pattern for several days, which is essential for successful reproduction. Although the underlying mechanisms appear to be different,(More)
Of all our mechanosensitive tissues, skeletal muscle is the most developmentally responsive to physical activity. Conversely, restricted mobility due to injury or disease results in muscle atrophy. Gravitational force is another form of mechanical input with profound developmental consequences. The mechanical unloading resulting from the reduced(More)
Transplantation of human fetal ventral mesencephalon (VM) to Parkinsonian patients has shown beneficial effects in several clinical trials. However, further improvements in the transplantation technique are needed. Delayed surgery, i.e., the in vitro maintenance of the tissue prior to transplantation would present several advantages. The roller tube(More)