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In mammals and other eukaryotes most of the genome is transcribed in a developmentally regulated manner to produce large numbers of long non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). Here we review the rapidly advancing field of long ncRNAs, describing their conservation, their organization in the genome and their roles in gene regulation. We also consider the medical(More)
A major proportion of the mammalian transcriptome comprises long RNAs that have little or no protein-coding capacity (ncRNAs). Only a handful of such transcripts have been examined in detail, and it is unknown whether this class of transcript is generally functional or merely artifact. Using in situ hybridization data from the Allen Brain Atlas, we(More)
Studies of the transcriptional output of the human and mouse genomes have revealed that there are many more transcripts produced than can be accounted for by predicted protein-coding genes. Using a custom microarray, we have identified 184 non-coding RNAs that exhibit more than twofold up- or down-regulation upon differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts into(More)
The transcriptional networks that regulate embryonic stem (ES) cell pluripotency and lineage specification are the subject of considerable attention. To date such studies have focused almost exclusively on protein-coding transcripts. However, recent transcriptome analyses show that the mammalian genome contains thousands of long noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs),(More)
The assumption that RNA can be readily classified into either protein-coding or non-protein-coding categories has pervaded biology for close to 50 years. Until recently, discrimination between these two categories was relatively straightforward: most transcripts were clearly identifiable as protein-coding messenger RNAs (mRNAs), and readily distinguished(More)
The human mitochondrial genome comprises a distinct genetic system transcribed as precursor polycistronic transcripts that are subsequently cleaved to generate individual mRNAs, tRNAs, and rRNAs. Here, we provide a comprehensive analysis of the human mitochondrial transcriptome across multiple cell lines and tissues. Using directional deep sequencing and(More)
For 50 years the term 'gene' has been synonymous with regions of the genome encoding mRNAs that are translated into protein. However, recent genome-wide studies have shown that the human genome is pervasively transcribed and produces many thousands of regulatory non-protein-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), including microRNAs, small interfering RNAs, PIWI-interacting(More)
The past few years have revealed that the genomes of all studied eukaryotes are almost entirely transcribed, generating an enormous number of non-protein-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). In parallel, it is increasingly evident that many of these RNAs have regulatory functions. Here, we highlight recent advances that illustrate the diversity of ncRNA control of genome(More)
BACKGROUND Long non-protein-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are emerging as important regulators of cellular differentiation and are widely expressed in the brain. RESULTS Here we show that many long ncRNAs exhibit dynamic expression patterns during neuronal and oligodendrocyte (OL) lineage specification, neuronal-glial fate transitions, and progressive stages of OL(More)
The identification of cancer-associated long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) and the investigation of their molecular and biological functions are important to understand the molecular biology of cancer and its progression. Although the functions of lncRNAs and the mechanisms regulating their expression are largely unknown, recent studies are beginning to unravel(More)