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A technique for the rapid production of large unilamellar vesicles by repeated extrusion under moderate pressures (≤ 500 lb/in²) of multilamellar vesicles through polycarbonate filters (100 nm pore size) is demonstrated. In combination with freeze-thaw protocols where required, this procedure results in unilamellar vesicles with diameters in the range(More)
This study reports on the development of a liposomal formulation of vincristine with significantly enhanced stability and biological properties. The in vitro and in vivo pharmacokinetic, tumour delivery and efficacy properties of liposomal vincristine formulations based on sphingomyelin (SM) and cholesterol were compared with liposomes composed of(More)
An unbiased proteomic screen to identify integrin-linked kinase (ILK) interactors revealed rictor as an ILK-binding protein. This finding was interesting because rictor, originally identified as a regulator of cytoskeletal dynamics, is also a component of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2), a complex implicated in Akt phosphorylation. These(More)
The blood residence time of liposomes with entrapped doxorubicin is shown to be significantly longer than for identically prepared empty liposomes. Liposomal doxorubicin systems with a drug-to-lipid ratio of 0.2 (w/w) were administered at a dose of 100 mg lipid/kg. Both doxorubicin and liposomal lipid were quantified in order to assess in vivo stability and(More)
The toxicity and antitumor activity of liposomal vincristine preparations have been examined. Vincristine was encapsulated inside egg phosphatidylcholine (EPC)/cholesterol (55/45, mol/mol) and distearoylphosphatidylcholine (DSPC)/cholesterol (55/45, mol/mol) vesicles utilizing transmembrane pH gradient (inside acidic) drug uptake processes. Trapping(More)
Prolonged exposure to vincristine correlates with improved therapeutic activity. In this work, two methods are used to increase the circulation longevity of liposomal formulations of vincristine. The first involves incorporation of the ganglioside GM1, which acts to increase the circulation longevity of liposomal carriers, while the second approach relies(More)
Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is a hypoxia and HIF-1-inducible protein that regulates intra- and extracellular pH under hypoxic conditions and promotes tumor cell survival and invasion in hypoxic microenvironments. Interrogation of 3,630 human breast cancers provided definitive evidence of CAIX as an independent poor prognostic biomarker for distant(More)
In the aerobic bacterium Chelatobacter heintzii, growth and regulation of enzymes involved in nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) degradation have been investigated in chemostat culture during cultivation with glucose, NTA or mixtures thereof. In batch culture mu max with NTA was 0.18 h-1 and with glucose 0.22 h-1. Growth yields for both substrates were reduced at(More)
Anticancer drug combinations can act synergistically or antagonistically against tumor cells in vitro depending on the ratios of the individual agents comprising the combination. The importance of drug ratios in vivo, however, has heretofore not been investigated, and combination chemotherapy treatment regimens continue to be developed based on the maximum(More)
The effects of HER-2/neu overexpression on the tumor microenvironment in an aggressive breast cancer xenograft model were investigated. These studies focused on tumors derived following the subcutaneous injection of MDA-MB-435/LCC6 cells transfected with human c-erbB2 (LCC6(HER-2)) into SCID-Rag2M mice. LCC6(HER-2) tumors were more viable (H&E-stained tumor(More)