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Onset of puberty is characterised by a marked increase in the frequency of release of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and luteinising hormone (LH). The Kiss1 gene plays a critical role in pubertal development, and its product, kisspeptin, stimulates GnRH and LH release. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that Kiss1 gene expression in the(More)
Recent evidence has implicated neurokinin B (NKB) in the complex neuronal network mediating the effects of gonadal steroids on the regulation of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion. Because the neurokinin 3 receptor (NK3R) is considered to mediate the effects of NKB at the cellular level, we determined the distribution of immunoreactive NK3R in(More)
Orphanin FQ (OFQ), also known as nociceptin, is a member of the endogenous opioid peptide family that has been functionally implicated in the control of pain, anxiety, circadian rhythms, and neuroendocrine function. In the reproductive system, endogenous opioid peptides are involved in the steroid feedback control of GnRH pulses and the induction of the(More)
Kisspeptin-neurokinin B-dynorphin (KNDy) cells of the hypothalamus are a key component in the neuroendocrine regulation of GnRH secretion. Evidence in sheep and other species suggests that dynorphin released by KNDy cells inhibits pulsatile GnRH secretion by acting upon κ-opioid receptors (KOR). However, the precise anatomical location and neurochemical(More)
Dynorphin A (DYN)-containing cells play a key role in conveying the negative feedback influence of progesterone upon pulsatile gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion in the ewe. A very high percentage of DYN cells in the arcuate nucleus express the progesterone receptor; another population of arcuate nucleus cells that also express steroid(More)
We have shown recently that leptin modulates at least two aspects of anterior pituitary LH release in ruminants: basal and GnRH-mediated release. To test the hypothesis that leptin directly affects basal and GHRH-mediated GH secretion from the adenohypophysis, we examined the effects of various doses of recombinant ovine leptin (oleptin) on perifused(More)
Dynorphin, an endogenous opioid peptide, mediates progesterone-negative feedback on gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons in other species. The role of dynorphin in humans is unclear. The objective of this study was to determine if dynorphin fibers have close contacts with GnRH neurons in humans. Dual-label immunocytochemistry was performed on(More)
The pubertal process is characterized by an activation of physiological events within the hypothalamic-adenohypophyseal-gonadal axis which culminate in reproductive competence. Excessive weight gain and adiposity during the juvenile period is associated with accelerated onset of puberty in females. The mechanisms and pathways by which excess energy balance(More)
RFamide-related peptide 3 (RFRP3), the mammalian homologue of avian gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone, has been shown to negatively regulate the secretion of LH and may contribute to reproductive seasonality in some species. Herein, we examined the presence and potential role of the RFRP3-signaling system in regulating LH secretion in the mare during the(More)
Increased body weight (BW) gain during the juvenile period leads to early maturation of the reproductive neuroendocrine system. We investigated whether a nutritional regimen that advances the onset of puberty leads to alterations in the hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) circuitry that are permissive for enhanced gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)(More)