Marc X Fischer

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BACKGROUND In 2007, physicians on Yap Island reported an outbreak of illness characterized by rash, conjunctivitis, and arthralgia. Although serum from some patients had IgM antibody against dengue virus, the illness seemed clinically distinct from previously detected dengue. Subsequent testing with the use of consensus primers detected Zika virus RNA in(More)
OBJECTIVE To update the estimated global incidence of Japanese encephalitis (JE) using recent data for the purpose of guiding prevention and control efforts. METHODS Thirty-two areas endemic for JE in 24 Asian and Western Pacific countries were sorted into 10 incidence groups on the basis of published data and expert opinion. Population-based surveillance(More)
Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that was first identified in Uganda in 1947 (1). Before 2007, only sporadic human disease cases were reported from countries in Africa and Asia. In 2007, the first documented outbreak of Zika virus disease was reported in Yap State, Federated States of Micronesia; 73% of the population aged ≥3 years is estimated to(More)
PROBLEM/CONDITION West Nile virus (WNV) is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) in the family Flaviviridae and is the leading cause of arboviral disease in the United States. An estimated 80% of WNV infections are asymptomatic. Most symptomatic persons develop an acute systemic febrile illness that often includes headache, myalgia, arthralgia, rash, or(More)
This report updates the 1993 recommendations by CDC's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) regarding the prevention of Japanese encephalitis (JE) among travelers (CDC. Inactivated Japanese encephalitis virus vaccine: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices [ACIP]. MMWR 1993;42[No. RR-1]). This report summarizes the(More)
This report updates CDC's recommendations for using yellow fever (YF) vaccine (CDC. Yellow fever vaccine: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunizations Practices: MMWR 2002;51[No. RR-17]). Since the previous YF vaccine recommendations were published in 2002, new or additional information has become available on the epidemiology of YF, safety(More)
From 1999-2007, the most common causes of neuroinvasive arboviral disease in the United States, after West Nile virus (WNV), were California (CAL) serogroup viruses, St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV), and eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV). The CAL serogroup virus disease was primarily reported from Appalachia and the upper Midwest, SLEV disease(More)
West Nile virus (WNV) is a leading cause of mosquito-borne disease in the United States. Annual seasonal outbreaks vary in size and location. Predicting where and when higher than normal WNV transmission will occur can help direct limited public health resources. We developed models for the contiguous United States to identify meteorological anomalies(More)
In October 2001, the first inhalational anthrax case in the United States since 1976 was identified in a media company worker in Florida. A national investigation was initiated to identify additional cases and determine possible exposures to Bacillus anthracis. Surveillance was enhanced through health-care facilities, laboratories, and other means to(More)
During the first 6 months of 2016, large outbreaks of Zika virus disease caused by local mosquito-borne transmission occurred in Puerto Rico and other U.S. territories, but local mosquito-borne transmission was not identified in the continental United States (1,2). As of July 22, 2016, the Florida Department of Health had identified 321 Zika virus disease(More)