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BACKGROUND Prophylactic surgical treatment of the neck in "early tongue tumors" is a controversial issue. METHODS From a database of 226 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue treated at Canniesburn Hospital, Glasgow, U.K., between 1980 and 1996, a total of 137 patients with a minimum follow up of 24 months or until death were clinically(More)
Abdominal weakness is a known potential complication of breast reconstruction with a pedicled or free TRAM flap. It has been presumed that the DIEP flap, which involves no muscle resection, does not compromise abdominal muscle strength but little objective research exists to substantiate this. The aims of this retrospective study were to compare abdominal(More)
The response of rats to nicotine solutions was examined with the brief-exposure, taste reactivity test and a two-bottle, 24-hr preference test. In Experiment 1, naive nondeprived rats were administered intraoral infusions (0.8 ml infused during 1 min) of distilled water and 1 microgram/ml, 5 micrograms/ml, 10 micrograms/ml, 25 micrograms/ml, 50(More)
The data from the first 50 patients undergoing free TRAM flap breast reconstruction in two units were examined. Average patient age was 42 years, and average weight was 62 kg. Forty percent of patients were chronic smokers, and 26 percent had low abdominal scars. Twelve percent exercised their abdominal muscles regularly. Eighteen percent had undergone(More)
Reduction mammaplasty techniques using the inferior pedicle have been recommended to preserve the nipple and areolar sensation after surgery. The vertical scar mammaplasty with a superior pedicle has often been criticised because of the potential for damage to the sensory supply of the nipple-areola complex. The aim of this study was to assess the breast(More)
Tumours of the oral cavity/oropharynx occur relatively infrequently in the UK. The management of such lesions, especially the squamous cell carcinomas, is still a little controversial. Some centres advocate radiotherapy while others adopt surgery and radiotherapy. In an attempt to resolve the question of which approach gives the better results, a(More)
Lumbar punctures were performed on 69 patients who met Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) for major affective disorder, while they were drug-free and depressed. None of the patients met RDC for alcoholism. Cerebrospinal fluid 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and homovanillic acid (HVA) were measured by fluorometry and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol(More)
This paper discusses FearNot, a virtual learning environment populated by synthetic characters aimed at the 8-12 year old age group for the exploration of bullying and coping strategies. Currently, FearNot is being redesigned from a lab-based prototype into a classroom tool. In this paper we focus on informing the design of the characters and of the virtual(More)
Sebaceous carcinomas are uncommon amongst cutaneous malignancies. These lesions can broadly be classified into 2 groups; (i) periorbital, which behave aggressively, and (ii) extraorbital, which are reported to metastasize rarely. A retrospective review has identified 12 cases of primary sebaceous carcinoma treated at Canniesburn Hospital over the decade(More)