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OBJECTIVES The primary aim of this pilot investigation was to identify structural brain differences in older adults with chronic low back pain (CLBP) as compared with pain-free individuals. DESIGN Cross-sectional, case-control. PARTICIPANTS Sixteen cognitively intact older adults, eight with CLBP and eight pain-free; excluded if with psychiatric or(More)
Closed head injury (CHI) results in significant memory dysfunction. Although the disabling aspects of memory impairment after CHI have been recognized, little attention has been focused on the theoretical nature of these memory problems. A means of examining semantic sensitivity to the importance of the ideas presented in the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised(More)
Recent advances in neuroimaging have enabled researchers to establish relatively specific areas of the brain that are involved in working memory. In this positron emission tomography study we examined the pattern of neural activation associated with performance on number-letter sequencing, a purported measure of working memory included in the new Wechsler(More)
This study investigated the effects of severe closed head injury (CHI) on the speed of information processing within semantic categories. The question of whether subjects were able to benefit from priming was also investigated. Survivors of severe CHI who were less than 1 year postinjury and survivors who were greater than 1 year postinjury were compared(More)
Survivors of severe closed head injury (CHI) were compared with neurologically normal matched controls on measures of short-term memory processes. The results indicate that patients with CHI took longer to scan their short-term memory than controls, and this increased disproportionately as the memory load increased. The number of errors made in scanning(More)
Lesion studies have demonstrated that frequency memory, or memory for the frequency of occurrence, is associated with prefrontal and not temporal lobe lesions. This study examined neural activation during performance on a frequency-memory-judgment task and a recognition-memory task, both using words. Relative to a control task, the authors observed peaks of(More)
Performance on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) is widely reported to be impaired in patients with schizophrenia. It has been hypothesized that the performance deficit on the WCST in schizophrenia is related to a dysfunction of the frontal lobe, specifically the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. This hypothesis was tested by comparing a group of(More)
OBJECTIVE Changes to cognition and behavior have been reported after long-term exposure to solvents. Solvents are hypothesized to affect brain white matter. To test this, we examined the volume of the corpus callosum in workers with a history of exposure to solvents. METHODS We manually traced (blind to group membership) the volume of the corpus callosum(More)
The existence of a rostrocaudal gradient of medial temporal lobe (MTL) activation during memory encoding has historically received support from positron emission tomography studies, but less so from functional MRI (FMRI) studies. More recently, FMRI studies have demonstrated that characteristics of the stimuli can affect the location of activation seen in(More)