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OBJECTIVES The primary aim of this pilot investigation was to identify structural brain differences in older adults with chronic low back pain (CLBP) as compared with pain-free individuals. DESIGN Cross-sectional, case-control. PARTICIPANTS Sixteen cognitively intact older adults, eight with CLBP and eight pain-free; excluded if with psychiatric or(More)
Performance on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) is widely reported to be impaired in patients with schizophrenia. It has been hypothesized that the performance deficit on the WCST in schizophrenia is related to a dysfunction of the frontal lobe, specifically the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. This hypothesis was tested by comparing a group of(More)
PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of adjuvant chemotherapy on normal-appearing white matter in women with breast cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS Ten patients with early-stage breast cancer who were treated with adjuvant chemotherapy and 9 age-, education-, and IQ-matched healthy controls were studied with magnetic resonance imaging.(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE To our knowledge, no published studies have examined whole-brain regional differences to identify more discrete volumetric changes in the brains of childhood leukemia survivors. We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to examine regional gray and white matter differences in a group of long-term survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia(More)
Closed head injury (CHI) results in significant memory dysfunction. Although the disabling aspects of memory impairment after CHI have been recognized, little attention has been focused on the theoretical nature of these memory problems. A means of examining semantic sensitivity to the importance of the ideas presented in the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised(More)
Recent advances in neuroimaging have enabled researchers to establish relatively specific areas of the brain that are involved in working memory. In this positron emission tomography study we examined the pattern of neural activation associated with performance on number-letter sequencing, a purported measure of working memory included in the new Wechsler(More)
Cognitive reserve (CR) is a theoretical concept used to explain and study individual differences in cognitive symptom expression in neurological disease. In the absence of neurologic injury or demands on processing, compensatory and protective factors may be considered to represent cognitive capacity (CC), rather than cognitive reserve, per se. We studied(More)
This study investigated the effects of severe closed head injury (CHI) on the speed of information processing within semantic categories. The question of whether subjects were able to benefit from priming was also investigated. Survivors of severe CHI who were less than 1 year postinjury and survivors who were greater than 1 year postinjury were compared(More)
Survivors of severe closed head injury (CHI) were compared with neurologically normal matched controls on measures of short-term memory processes. The results indicate that patients with CHI took longer to scan their short-term memory than controls, and this increased disproportionately as the memory load increased. The number of errors made in scanning(More)
Lesion studies have demonstrated that frequency memory, or memory for the frequency of occurrence, is associated with prefrontal and not temporal lobe lesions. This study examined neural activation during performance on a frequency-memory-judgment task and a recognition-memory task, both using words. Relative to a control task, the authors observed peaks of(More)