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Currently available microbiological techniques are not designed to deal with very slowly growing microorganisms. The enrichment and study of such organisms demands a novel experimental approach. In the present investigation, the sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was applied and optimized for the enrichment and quantitative study of a very slowly growing(More)
With the increased use of chemical fertilizers in agriculture, many densely populated countries face environmental problems associated with high ammonia emissions. The process of anaerobic ammonia oxidation ('anammox') is one of the most innovative technological advances in the removal of ammonia nitrogen from waste water. This new process combines ammonia(More)
Anaerobic methane oxidation coupled to denitrification was recently assigned to bacteria belonging to the uncultured phylum NC10. In this study, we incubated sediment from a eutrophic ditch harboring a diverse community of NC10 bacteria in a bioreactor with a constant supply of methane and nitrite. After 6 months, fluorescence in situ hybridization showed(More)
The physiology of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (anammox) aggregates grown in a sequencing batch reactor was investigated quantitatively. The physiological pH and temperature ranges were 6.7 to 8.3 and 20 to 43 degrees C, respectively. The affinity constants for the substrates ammonium and nitrite were each less than 0.1 mg of nitrogen per liter. The anammox(More)
Recently, a bacterium capable to oxidize ammonium anaerobically at a high rate was identified as novel member of the Planctomycetales (Strous, M., Fuersi, J. A., Kramer, E. H. M., Logemann, S., Muyzer, G., van de Pas-Schoonen, K. T., Webb, R. I., Kufnen, J. G., and Jetten, M. S. M.: Nature 400, 446-449, 1999). Here we investigated the microbial community(More)
Marine Crenarchaeota are the most abundant single group of prokaryotes in the ocean, but their physiology and role in marine biogeochemical cycles are unknown. Recently, a member of this clade was isolated from a sea aquarium and shown to be capable of nitrification, tentatively suggesting that Crenarchaeota may play a role in the oceanic nitrogen cycle. We(More)
The availability of fixed inorganic nitrogen (nitrate, nitrite and ammonium) limits primary productivity in many oceanic regions. The conversion of nitrate to N2 by heterotrophic bacteria (denitrification) is believed to be the only important sink for fixed inorganic nitrogen in the ocean. Here we provide evidence for bacteria that anaerobically oxidize(More)
Modern agriculture has accelerated biological methane and nitrogen cycling on a global scale. Freshwater sediments often receive increased downward fluxes of nitrate from agricultural runoff and upward fluxes of methane generated by anaerobic decomposition. In theory, prokaryotes should be capable of using nitrate to oxidize methane anaerobically, but such(More)
Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is both a promising process in wastewater treatment and a long overlooked microbial physiology that can contribute significantly to biological nitrogen cycling in the world's oceans. Anammox is mediated by a monophyletic group of bacteria that branches deeply in the Planctomycetales. Here we describe a new genus and(More)
Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) has become a main focus in oceanography and wastewater treatment. It is also the nitrogen cycle's major remaining biochemical enigma. Among its features, the occurrence of hydrazine as a free intermediate of catabolism, the biosynthesis of ladderane lipids and the role of cytoplasm differentiation are unique in(More)