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The I kappa B kinase (IKK), consisting of the IKK1 and IKK2 catalytic subunits and the NEMO (also known as IKK gamma) regulatory subunit, phosphorylates I kappa B proteins, targeting them for degradation and thus inducing activation of NF-kappa B (reviewed in refs 1, 2). IKK2 and NEMO are necessary for NF-kappa B activation through pro-inflammatory signals.(More)
MicroRNAs are small RNA species involved in biological control at multiple levels. Using genetic deletion and transgenic approaches, we show that the evolutionarily conserved microRNA-155 (miR-155) has an important role in the mammalian immune system, specifically in regulating T helper cell differentiation and the germinal center reaction to produce an(More)
A20 (TNFAIP3) is a protein that is involved in the negative feedback regulation of NF-κB signaling in response to specific proinflammatory stimuli in different cell types and has been suggested as a susceptibility gene for rheumatoid arthritis. To define the contribution of A20 to rheumatoid arthritis pathology, we generated myeloid-specific A20-deficient(More)
Supplementary figure 1 B cell development in mb1-cre mice. Supplementary figure 2 (a) Proportions of mature splenic B cells in mice lacking IKK1 and IKK2 in the B lineage. (b) Expression of CD93 on transitional (CD93 + B220 +) B cells from mb1-cre Nemo f , Nemo f and mb1-cre Ikk1 f/f Ikk2 f/f mice. Supplementary figure 3 (a) CD23 + immature B cells are(More)
The cytokine TNF family member B cell-activating factor (BAFF; also termed BLyS) is essential for B cell generation and maintenance. Three receptors have been identified that bind to BAFF: transmembrane activator, calcium modulator, and cyclophilin ligand interactor (TACI); B cell maturation Ag (BCMA); and BAFF-R. Recently, it was shown that A/WySnJ mice,(More)
Nuclear factor (NF)-␬ B proteins play crucial roles in immune responses and cellular survival. Activation of NF-␬ B is mediated by the I ␬ B kinase (IKK) complex, which is composed of two kinases, IKK1 and IKK2, and a regulatory subunit termed NF-␬ B essential modulator (NEMO). IKK2-and NEMO-deficient mice die at early embryonic stages. We therefore used(More)
A20 is a nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) target gene that encodes a ubiquitin-editing enzyme that is essential for the termination of NF-kappaB activation after tumor necrosis factor (TNF) or microbial product stimulation and for the prevention of TNF-induced apoptosis. Mice lacking A20 succumb to inflammation in several organs, including the intestine,(More)
The substitution of one amino acid in the Roquin protein by the sanroque mutation induces a dramatic autoimmune syndrome in mice. This is believed to occur through ectopic expression of inducible T cell co-stimulator (ICOS) and unrestrained differentiation of follicular T helper cells, which induce spontaneous germinal center reactions to self-antigens. In(More)
Activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1)- and inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase 2 (IKK2)-dependent signaling plays a crucial role in the development of obesity-associated insulin and leptin resistance not only in peripheral tissues but also in the CNS. Here, we demonstrate that constitutive JNK activation in agouti-related peptide(More)
Correct classification of cancer patients into subtypes is a prerequisite for acute diagnosis and effective treatment. Currently this classification relies mainly on histological assessment, but gene expression analysis by microarrays has shown great promise. Here we show that high accuracy, quantitative proteomics can robustly segregate cancer subtypes(More)