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Lipid droplets (LDs) are cellular storage organelles for neutral lipids that vary in size and abundance according to cellular needs. Physiological conditions that promote lipid storage rapidly and markedly increase LD volume and surface. How the need for surface phospholipids is sensed and balanced during this process is unknown. Here, we show that(More)
MicroRNAs are small RNA species involved in biological control at multiple levels. Using genetic deletion and transgenic approaches, we show that the evolutionarily conserved microRNA-155 (miR-155) has an important role in the mammalian immune system, specifically in regulating T helper cell differentiation and the germinal center reaction to produce an(More)
The I kappa B kinase (IKK), consisting of the IKK1 and IKK2 catalytic subunits and the NEMO (also known as IKK gamma) regulatory subunit, phosphorylates I kappa B proteins, targeting them for degradation and thus inducing activation of NF-kappa B (reviewed in refs 1, 2). IKK2 and NEMO are necessary for NF-kappa B activation through pro-inflammatory signals.(More)
The maintenance of mature B cells hinges on signals emitted from the BAFF-R cell-surface receptor, but the nature of these signals is incompletely understood. Inhibition of canonical NF-kappaB transcription factor activity through ablation of the essential scaffold protein NEMO arrests B cell development at the same stage as BAFF-R deficiency.(More)
The role of the transcription factor Yin Yang 1 (YY1) in development is largely unknown. Here we show that specific ablation of YY1 in mouse B cells caused a defect in somatic rearrangement in the immunoglobulin heavy-chain (IgH) locus and a block in the progenitor-B-to-precursor-B-cell transition, which was partially rescued by a prerearranged IgH(More)
A20 (TNFAIP3) is a protein that is involved in the negative feedback regulation of NF-κB signaling in response to specific proinflammatory stimuli in different cell types and has been suggested as a susceptibility gene for rheumatoid arthritis. To define the contribution of A20 to rheumatoid arthritis pathology, we generated myeloid-specific A20-deficient(More)
NF-kappaB (nuclear factor kappaB) has a pivotal role in many cellular processes, including the inflammatory and immune responses and, therefore, its activation is tightly regulated by the IKK (IkappaB kinase) complex and by IkappaBalpha degradation. When Shigella bacteria multiply within epithelial cells they release peptidoglycans, which are recognized by(More)
Humoral autoimmunity paralleled by the accumulation of follicular helper T cells (T(FH) cells) is linked to mutation of the gene encoding the RNA-binding protein roquin-1. Here we found that T cells lacking roquin caused pathology in the lung and accumulated as cells of the T(H)17 subset of helper T cells in the lungs. Roquin inhibited T(H)17 cell(More)
T cell receptor (TCR) signaling to IkappaB kinase (IKK)/NF-kappaB is controlled by PKCtheta-dependent activation of the Carma1, Bcl10, and Malt1 (CBM) complex. Antigen-induced phosphorylation of Bcl10 has been reported, but its physiological function is unknown. Here we show that the putative downstream kinase IKKbeta is required for initial CBM complex(More)