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MicroRNAs are small RNA species involved in biological control at multiple levels. Using genetic deletion and transgenic approaches, we show that the evolutionarily conserved microRNA-155 (miR-155) has an important role in the mammalian immune system, specifically in regulating T helper cell differentiation and the germinal center reaction to produce an(More)
Lipid droplets (LDs) are cellular storage organelles for neutral lipids that vary in size and abundance according to cellular needs. Physiological conditions that promote lipid storage rapidly and markedly increase LD volume and surface. How the need for surface phospholipids is sensed and balanced during this process is unknown. Here, we show that(More)
The I kappa B kinase (IKK), consisting of the IKK1 and IKK2 catalytic subunits and the NEMO (also known as IKK gamma) regulatory subunit, phosphorylates I kappa B proteins, targeting them for degradation and thus inducing activation of NF-kappa B (reviewed in refs 1, 2). IKK2 and NEMO are necessary for NF-kappa B activation through pro-inflammatory signals.(More)
The role of the transcription factor Yin Yang 1 (YY1) in development is largely unknown. Here we show that specific ablation of YY1 in mouse B cells caused a defect in somatic rearrangement in the immunoglobulin heavy-chain (IgH) locus and a block in the progenitor-B-to-precursor-B-cell transition, which was partially rescued by a prerearranged IgH(More)
Disruption of the X-linked gene encoding NF-kappa B essential modulator (NEMO) produces male embryonic lethality, completely blocks NF-kappa B activation by proinflammatory cytokines, and interferes with the generation and/or persistence of lymphocytes. Heterozygous female mice develop patchy skin lesions with massive granulocyte infiltration and(More)
The transcription factor NF-kappaB is implicated in various aspects of T cell development and function. The IkappaB kinase (IKK) complex, consisting of two kinases, IKK1/alpha and IKK2/beta, and the NEMO/IKKgamma regulatory subunit, mediates NF-kappaB activation by most known stimuli. Adoptive transfer experiments had demonstrated that IKK1 and IKK2 are(More)
The maintenance of mature B cells hinges on signals emitted from the BAFF-R cell-surface receptor, but the nature of these signals is incompletely understood. Inhibition of canonical NF-kappaB transcription factor activity through ablation of the essential scaffold protein NEMO arrests B cell development at the same stage as BAFF-R deficiency.(More)
Natural killer-like (NK) T, regulatory T (TR), and memory type T cells display surface phenotypes reminiscent of activated T cells. Previously, we reported that the generation of TR cells and, to a lesser extent, of memory type T cells, depends on IkappaB kinase 2. Here, we show that T cell-specific ablation of IkappaB kinase 2, in addition, completely(More)
Humoral autoimmunity paralleled by the accumulation of follicular helper T cells (T(FH) cells) is linked to mutation of the gene encoding the RNA-binding protein roquin-1. Here we found that T cells lacking roquin caused pathology in the lung and accumulated as cells of the T(H)17 subset of helper T cells in the lungs. Roquin inhibited T(H)17 cell(More)
BAFF-R-dependent activation of the alternative NF-kappaB pathway plays an essential role in mature B cell survival. Mutations leading to overexpression of NIK and deletion of the TRAF3 gene are implicated in human multiple myeloma. We show that overexpression of NIK in mouse B lymphocytes amplifies alternative NF-kappaB activation and peripheral B cell(More)