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Eukaryotic cells have to constantly cope with highly reactive oxygen-derived free radicals. Their defense against these free radicals is achieved by natural antioxidant molecules but also by antioxidant enzymes. In this paper, we review some of the data comparing the efficiency of three different antioxidant enzymes: Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD),(More)
The transcription factor nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB) is a key factor in the immune response triggered by a wide variety of molecules such as inflammatory cytokines, or some bacterial and viral products. This transcription factor represents a new target for the development of anti-inflammatory molecules, but this type of research is currently hampered(More)
The protein chaperone heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a major regulator of different transcription factors such as MyoD, a basic helix loop helix (bHLH) protein, and the bHLH-Per-aryl hydrocarbon nuclear translocator (ARNT)-Sim (PAS) factors Sim and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr). The transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha),(More)
Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B) is a potent and pleiotropic transcription factor that can be activated by a wide variety of inducers, including interleukin-1 (IL-1). Although the detailed activation mechanism of NF-kappa B is still under investigation, it requires both phosphorylation and degradation of its inhibitory subunit I kappa B and the presence(More)
Glutathione peroxidase (GPX), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase are the most important enzymes of the cell antioxidant defense system. However, these molecules are themselves susceptible to oxidation. The aim of this work was to estimate to what extent this system could be inactivated by its own substrates. We tested the effect of hydrogen peroxide,(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination among young children in Belgium. DESIGN Prospective case-control study. SETTING Random sample of 39 Belgian hospitals, February 2008 to June 2010. PARTICIPANTS 215 children admitted to hospital with rotavirus gastroenteritis confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and 276 age and hospital(More)
We characterized a new signaling pathway leading to the activation of cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB) in several cell lines affected by mitochondrial dysfunction. In vitro kinase assays, inhibitors of several kinase pathways and overexpression of a dominant-negative mutant for calcium/calmodulin kinase IV (CaMKIV), which blocks the activation(More)
Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor activated by hypoxia. The HIF-1 activation transduction pathway is poorly understood. In this report, we investigated the activation of extracellular regulated kinases (ERK) in hypoxia and their involvement in HIF-1 activation. We demonstrated that in human microvascular endothelial cells-1(More)
In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study, we investigated the effect of an infant milk formula with 6 g/L short-chain galacto- and long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides [(scGOS/lcFOS) ratio 9:1] on the development of the fecal secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) response and on the composition of the intestinal microbiota in 215 healthy infants(More)
Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor which is activated by hypoxia and involved in the adaptative response of the cell to oxygen deprivation. During hypoxic stress, HIF-1 triggers the overexpression of genes coding for glycolytic enzymes and angiogenic factors. To be active HIF-1 must be phosphorylated. HIF-1 is a substrate for(More)