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Type 2 diabetes mellitus results from the interaction of environmental factors with a combination of genetic variants, most of which were hitherto unknown. A systematic search for these variants was recently made possible by the development of high-density arrays that permit the genotyping of hundreds of thousands of polymorphisms. We tested 392,935(More)
The biochemical mechanisms involved in regulation of insulin secretion are not completely understood. The rat INS-1 cell line has been used to gain insight in this area because it secretes insulin in response to glucose concentrations in the physiological range. However, the magnitude of the response is far less than that seen in freshly isolated rat(More)
The major focus of this Review is on the mechanisms of islet beta cell failure in the pathogenesis of obesity-associated type 2 diabetes (T2D). As this demise occurs within the context of beta cell compensation for insulin resistance, consideration is also given to the mechanisms involved in the compensation process, including mechanisms for expansion of(More)
Genome-wide association studies have identified common variants that only partially explain the genetic risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Using genome-wide association data from 1,376 French individuals, we identified 16,360 SNPs nominally associated with T2D and studied these SNPs in an independent sample of 4,977 French individuals. We then selected the 28(More)
Insulin secretion in the intact organism, and by the perfused pancreas and groups of isolated perifused islets, is pulsatile. We have proposed a metabolic model of glucose-induced insulin secretion in which oscillations in the ATP/ADP ratio drive alterations in metabolic and electrical events that lead to insulin release. A key prediction of our model is(More)
Several approaches were used to test the hypothesis proposing a role for acyl-CoA esters in nutrient-induced insulin release (Prentki, M., and Matschinsky, F. M. (1987) Physiol. Rev. 67, 1185-1248; Corkey, B. E., Glennon, M. C., Chen, K. S., Deeney, J. T., Matschinsky, F. M., and Prentki, M. (1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264, 21608-21612). Exogenous saturated long(More)
UNLABELLED Changes in the concentration of malonyl-CoA in many tissues have been related to alterations in the activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), the rate-limiting enzyme in its formation. In contrast, little is known about the physiological role of malonyl-CoA decarboxylase (MCD), an enzyme responsible for malonyl-CoA catabolism. In this study, we(More)
The hypothesis proposing that anaplerosis and cataplerosis play an important role in fuel signaling by providing mitochondrially derived coupling factors for stimulation of insulin secretion was tested. A rise in citrate coincided with the initiation of insulin secretion in response to glucose in INS-1 beta-cells. The dose dependence of glucose-stimulated(More)
Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is a stress-inducible gene and encodes a member of the ATF/CREB family of transcription factors. However, the physiological significance of ATF3 induction by stress signals is not clear. In this report, we describe several lines of evidence supporting a role of ATF3 in stress-induced beta-cell apoptosis. First, ATF3(More)