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Type 2 diabetes mellitus results from the interaction of environmental factors with a combination of genetic variants, most of which were hitherto unknown. A systematic search for these variants was recently made possible by the development of high-density arrays that permit the genotyping of hundreds of thousands of polymorphisms. We tested 392,935(More)
The biochemical mechanisms involved in regulation of insulin secretion are not completely understood. The rat INS-1 cell line has been used to gain insight in this area because it secretes insulin in response to glucose concentrations in the physiological range. However, the magnitude of the response is far less than that seen in freshly isolated rat(More)
The major focus of this Review is on the mechanisms of islet beta cell failure in the pathogenesis of obesity-associated type 2 diabetes (T2D). As this demise occurs within the context of beta cell compensation for insulin resistance, consideration is also given to the mechanisms involved in the compensation process, including mechanisms for expansion of(More)
We have proposed the "glucolipotoxicity" hypothesis in which elevated free fatty acids (FFAs) together with hyperglycemia are synergistic in causing islet beta-cell damage because high glucose inhibits fat oxidation and consequently lipid detoxification. The effects of 1-2 d culture of both rat INS 832/13 cells and human islet beta-cells were investigated(More)
Genome-wide association studies have identified common variants that only partially explain the genetic risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Using genome-wide association data from 1,376 French individuals, we identified 16,360 SNPs nominally associated with T2D and studied these SNPs in an independent sample of 4,977 French individuals. We then selected the 28(More)
Previous studies in rat islets have suggested that anaplerosis plays an important role in the regulation of pancreatic beta cell function and growth. However, the relative contribution of islet beta cells versus non-beta cells to glucose-regulated anaplerosis is not known. Furthermore, the fate of glucose carbon entering the Krebs cycle of islet cells(More)
The pancreatic islet β cell senses circulating levels of calorigenic nutrients to secrete insulin according to the needs of the organism. Altered insulin secretion is linked to various disorders such as diabetes, hypoglycemic states, and cardiometabolic diseases. Fuel stimuli, including glucose, free fatty acids, and amino acids, promote insulin granule(More)
We previously provided evidence that glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) induces pancreatic beta-cell growth nonadditively with glucose in a phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase- and protein kinase C zeta-dependent manner. However, the exact mechanism by which the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R), a member of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily, activates(More)
Insulin secretion in the intact organism, and by the perfused pancreas and groups of isolated perifused islets, is pulsatile. We have proposed a metabolic model of glucose-induced insulin secretion in which oscillations in the ATP/ADP ratio drive alterations in metabolic and electrical events that lead to insulin release. A key prediction of our model is(More)