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Attack–defense trees extend attack trees with defense nodes. This richer formalism allows for a more precise modeling of a system's vulnerabilities, by representing interactions between possible attacks and corresponding defensive measures. In this paper we compare the computational complexity of both formalisms. We identify semantics for which extending(More)
This work addresses the growing need of performing meaningful probabilistic analysis of security. We propose a framework that integrates the graphical security modeling technique of attack–defense trees with probabilistic information expressed in terms of Bayesian networks. This allows us to perform probabilistic evaluation of attack– defense scenarios(More)
Computing inference from a given knowledgebase is one of the key competences of computer science. Therefore, numerous formalisms and specialized inference routines have been introduced and implemented for this task. Typical examples are Bayesian networks, constraint systems or different kinds of logic. It is known today that these formalisms can be unified(More)
This paper develops a new uncertainty measure for the theory of hints that complies with the established semantics of statistical information theory and further satisfies all classical requirements for such a measure imposed in the literature. The proposed functional decomposes into conversant uncertainty measures and therefore discloses a new(More)