Marc Nickmilder

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The pool chlorine hypothesis postulates that the rise in childhood asthma in the developed world could result at least partly from the increasing exposure of children to toxic gases and aerosols contaminating the air of indoor chlorinated pools. To further assess this hypothesis, we explored the relationships between childhood asthma, atopy, and cumulated(More)
Heavy metals can cause renal effects on vulnerable populations but it is uncertain whether these metals still pose health risks at the low exposure levels now prevailing in most industrialized countries. In a cross-sectional study performed on 736 adolescents, we assessed the associations between the concentrations of cadmium and lead in blood and urine and(More)
OBJECTIVE Irritant gases and aerosols contaminating the air of indoor swimming pools can affect the lung epithelium and increase asthma risk in children. We evaluated the impact of infant swimming practice on allergic status and respiratory health later in childhood. METHODS Clara cell protein, surfactant-associated protein D, and total and(More)
Ozone (O3) is known to induce lung function impairment and airways inflammation during episodes of photochemical smog. The aim of the present study was to assess the inflammatory effect of ambient O3 in healthy children using nitric oxide in exhaled air (eNO) as a noninvasive test. The study was performed on 6 groups of children (n = 11-15), aged 6.5 to 15(More)
Injury to the alveolocapillary barrier characterizes ALI/ARDS; therefore determining levels of lung epithelium-specific small proteins in serum may help predict clinical outcomes. We examined whether serum Clara cell protein (CC-16) concentration is correlated with the outcome, mechanical ventilation duration, and incidence of nonpulmonary organ failure.(More)
BACKGROUND It has been hypothesised that the rise in childhood asthma in the developed world could result at least in part from the increasing exposure of children to toxic chlorination products in the air of indoor swimming pools. OBJECTIVES Ecological study to evaluate whether this hypothesis can explain the geographical variation in the prevalence of(More)
OBJECTIVE The goal was to estimate the burden of allergic diseases associated with chlorinated pool exposure among adolescents. METHODS We examined 847 students, 13 to 18 years of age, who had attended outdoor or indoor chlorinated pools at various rates. Of them, 114 had attended mainly a copper-silver pool and served as a reference group. We measured(More)
Exposure to indoor chlorinated swimming pools can be detrimental to the airways of swimmers and increase asthma risks but it is unknown whether these effects concern outdoor pools. The present study examined 847 secondary school adolescents who had attended residential or nonresidential outdoor chlorinated pools at a variable rate. The main outcomes were:(More)
To date, airways injury or inflammation caused by air pollutants has been evaluated mainly by analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage, an invasive technique totally unsuitable to children. The assessment of respiratory risks in this particularly vulnerable population has thus for a long time relied on spirometric tests and self-reported symptoms which are(More)