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Through the injection of f-aequorin (a calcium-sensitive bioluminescent reporter) into the dorsal micromeres of 8-cell stage Xenopus laevis embryos, and the use of a Photon Imaging Microscope, distinct patterns of calcium signalling were visualised during the gastrulation period. We present results to show that localised domains of elevated calcium were(More)
The molecular mechanism of neural induction is still unknown and the identity of the natural inducer remains elusive. It has been suggested that both the protein kinase C and cAMP signal transduction pathways may be involved in mediating its action. Here we provide evidence that Ca2+ is implicated in the process of transduction of the neuralizing signal. We(More)
Using Nicotiana plumbaginifolia constitutively expressing the recombinant bioluminescent calcium indicator, aequorin, it has been previously demonstrated that plant cells react to cold-shock by an immediate rise in cytosolic calcium. Such an opportune system has been exploited to address the regulatory pathway involved in the calcium response. For this(More)
The clinical manifestations observed in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected patients are primarily due to the capacity of the virus and its components to inactivate the immune system. HIV-1 Tat protein could participate in this immune system disorder. This protein is secreted by infected cells of HIV-infected patients and is free in the(More)
In amphibian embryos the central nervous system derives from the dorsal region of the ectoderm. Molecular studies led to the formulation of the "neural default model" in which neural development is under the inhibitory control of members of the BMP family. These growth factors also act as epidermis inducers. The neural fate is revealed by factors secreted(More)
Depolarization-activated plasma membrane calcium channels have been suggested to play prominent roles in signal perception and transduction processes during growth and development of higher plants. The existence of such channels has recently been established in higher plant cells. However, patch-clamp experiments have shown that their activity is very low(More)
Mercuric chloride (HgCl2) induces T helper 2 (Th2) autoreactive anti-class II T cells in Brown Norway rats. These cells produce interleukin (IL)-4 and induce a B cell polyclonal activation that is responsible for autoimmune disease. In Brown Norway rats, HgCl2 triggers early IL-4 mRNA expression both in vivo and in vitro by T cells, which may explain why(More)
Plasma membrane-bound voltage-dependent calcium channels may couple the perception of an initial stimulus to a regulated pathway for calcium influx. The activities of these channels have been shown to be very low and highly unstable but may be recruited by large-predepolarizing pulses, according to a process referred to as recruitment. By combining(More)
Development of the vertebrate embryonic nervous system is characterized by a cascade of signalling events. In Xenopus, the initial step in this cascade results from signals emanating from the dorsal mesoderm that divert the fate of the ectoderm from an epidermal to a neural lineage. These signals include extracellular antagonists of the bone morphogenetic(More)