Learn More
Hyperinflammatory responses can lead to a variety of diseases, including sepsis. We now report that extracellular histones released in response to inflammatory challenge contribute to endothelial dysfunction, organ failure and death during sepsis. They can be targeted pharmacologically by antibody to histone or by activated protein C (APC). Antibody to(More)
There is emerging evidence that platelets are major contributors to inflammatory processes through intimate associations with innate immune cells. Here, we report that activated platelets induce the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI), which is the leading cause of death after transfusion(More)
MRL/Mp(-)+/+ mice produce antinuclear antibodies and develop a spontaneous autoimmune syndrome with lupus-like nephritis. We obtained a panel of seven histone-reactive IgG mAb from a single MRL/Mp(-)+/+ mouse. These antibodies do not react significantly with DNA or individual histones, but bind strongly to the histone H2A-H2B dimer and even more strongly to(More)
Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are part of the innate immune response to infections. NETs are a meshwork of DNA fibers comprising histones and antimicrobial proteins. Microbes are immobilized in NETs and encounter a locally high and lethal concentration of effector proteins. Recent studies show that NETs are formed inside the vasculature in(More)
We previously reported that extracellular histones are major mediators of death in sepsis. Infusion of extracellular histones leads to increased cytokine levels. Histones activate TLR2 and TLR4 in a process that is enhanced by binding to DNA. Activation of TLR4 is responsible for the histone-dependent increase in cytokine levels. To study the impact of(More)
The heavy metal mercury is ubiquitously distributed in the environment resulting in permanent low-level exposure in human populations. Mercury can be encountered in three main chemical forms (elemental, inorganic, and organic) which can affect the immune system in different ways. In this review, we describe the effects of these various forms of mercury(More)
Mer tyrosine kinase (MerTK) is a major macrophage apoptotic cell (AC) receptor. Its functional impairment promotes autoimmunity and atherosclerosis, whereas overexpression correlates with poor prognosis in cancer. However, little is known about mechanisms regulating MerTK expression in humans. We found that MerTK expression is heterogenous among macrophage(More)
Autoreactivity in lupus requires the delivery of autoantigens to APCs in a proinflammatory context. It has been proposed that apoptotic cells are a source of lupus autoantigens and targets for autoantibodies. Using a histone H2B-GFP fusion protein as traceable Ag, we show here that lupus autoantibodies, directed against nuclear autoantigens, can opsonize(More)
Apoptotic cells are considered the source of DNA, histones, and nucleoprotein complexes that drive the production of autoantibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus. However, the role of apoptotic cells in the activation of the immune system is not clear. To explore interactions that may initiate or sustain the production of anti-nuclear autoantibodies, we(More)
In AKI, dying renal cells release intracellular molecules that stimulate immune cells to secrete proinflammatory cytokines, which trigger leukocyte recruitment and renal inflammation. Whether the release of histones, specifically, from dying cells contributes to the inflammation of AKI is unknown. In this study, we found that dying tubular epithelial cells(More)