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BACKGROUND A major impediment to tuberculosis control in Africa is the difficulty in diagnosing active tuberculosis (TB), particularly in the context of HIV infection. We hypothesized that a unique host blood RNA transcriptional signature would distinguish TB from other diseases (OD) in HIV-infected and -uninfected patients, and that this could be the basis(More)
Contents Why do we need this guide? 5 Principles for rational antibiotic prescribing 6 Interpreting test results 11 Correct techniques of microbiological sampling 13 Changing antibiotics 15 Infection prevention 16 Acute upper respiratory tract infection 20 Lower respiratory tract infection 24 Intra-­‐abdominal infection 29 Acute diarrhoea 31 Urinary tract(More)
The risk factors for acquisition of and mortality due to nosocomial infection with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF) in orthotopic liver transplant (OLT) recipients were studied at a tertiary care hospital; 32 VREF-infected OLT patients (cases) were compared with 33 randomly selected OLT recipients (controls). More antibiotics were(More)
The repression of human cytomegalovirus immediate-early (IE) lytic gene expression is crucial for the maintenance of the latent viral state. By using conditionally permissive cell lines, which provide a good model for the differentiation state-dependent repression of IE gene expression, we have identified several cellular factors that bind to the major(More)
Securing access to effective antimicrobials is one of the greatest challenges today. Until now, efforts to address this issue have been isolated and uncoordinated, with little focus on sustainable and international solutions. Global collective action is necessary to improve access to life-saving antimicrobials, conserving them, and ensuring continued(More)
Paradoxical enlargement and development of new intracranial tuberculomas and tuberculous brain abscesses on adequate antituberculosis treatment are well recognized and supposedly cytokine mediated. These lesions are often unresponsive to conventional antituberculosis treatment, corticosteroids, and surgery. We therefore assessed the effect of adjunctive(More)
FORUM Tuberculosis is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected patients in sub-Saharan Africa. HIV infection is often first diagnosed following a diagnosis of tuberculosis, with many patients needing antiretroviral therapy (ART). Starting ART in HIV-infected patients with tuberculosis (TB) may be associated with complications, including(More)
BACKGROUND Antibiotic consumption is a major driver of bacterial resistance. To address the increasing burden of multi-drug resistant bacterial infections, antibiotic stewardship programmes are promoted worldwide to rationalize antibiotic prescribing and conserve remaining antibiotics. Few studies have been reported from developing countries and none from(More)
Access to quality-assured antimicrobials is regarded as part of the human right to health, yet universal access is often undermined in low-income and middle-income countries. Lack of access to the instruments necessary to make the correct diagnosis and prescribe antimicrobials appropriately, in addition to weak health systems, heightens the challenge faced(More)
BACKGROUND We describe the geographic distribution, clinical characteristics, and management of patients with disease caused by Emmonsia sp., a novel dimorphic fungal pathogen recently described in South Africa. METHODS We performed a multicenter, retrospective chart review of laboratory-confirmed cases of emmonsiosis diagnosed across South Africa from(More)