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Regulatory T cells (T(reg) cells) are central to the maintenance of immune homeostasis. However, little is known about the stability of T(reg) cells in vivo. In this study, we demonstrate that a substantial percentage of cells had transient or unstable expression of the transcription factor Foxp3. These 'exFoxp3' T cells had an activated-memory T cell(More)
Positive and negative costimulation by members of the CD28 family is critical for the development of productive immune responses against foreign pathogens and their proper termination to prevent inflammation-induced tissue damage. In addition, costimulatory signals are critical for the establishment and maintenance of peripheral tolerance. This paradigm has(More)
Stable Foxp3 expression is crucial for regulatory T (Treg) cell function. We observed that antigen-driven activation and inflammation in the CNS promoted Foxp3 instability selectively in the autoreactive Treg cells that expressed high amounts of Foxp3 before experimental autoimmune encephalitis induction. Treg cells with a demethylated Treg-cell-specific(More)
Immunosuppressive drugs can be completely withdrawn in up to 20% of liver transplant recipients, commonly referred to as 'operationally' tolerant. Immune characterization of these patients, however, has not been performed in detail, and we lack tests capable of identifying tolerant patients among recipients receiving maintenance immunosuppression. In the(More)
During the initial hours after activation, CD4(+) T cells experience profound changes in gene expression. Co-stimulation via the CD28 receptor is required for efficient activation of naive T cells. However, the transcriptional consequences of CD28 co-stimulation are not completely understood. We performed expression microarray analysis to elucidate the(More)
Foxp3(+) CD4(+) T helper cells called regulatory T (T reg) cells play a key role in controlling reactivity to self-antigens and onset of autoimmunity. T reg cells either arise in thymus and are called natural T reg (nT reg) cells or are generated in the periphery through induction of Foxp3 and are called inducible T reg (iT reg) cells. The relative(More)
A fraction of liver transplant recipients are able to discontinue all immunosuppressive therapies without rejecting their grafts and are said to be operationally tolerant to the transplant. However, accurate identification of these recipients remains a challenge. To design a clinically applicable molecular test of operational tolerance in liver(More)
Achieving drug-free tolerance or successfully using only small doses of immunosuppression is a major goal in organ transplantation. To investigate the potential mechanisms by which some kidney transplant recipients can achieve operational tolerance, we compared the expression profiles of microRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of operationally(More)
UNLABELLED Lifelong immunosuppression increases morbidity and mortality in liver transplantation. Discontinuation of immunosuppressive drugs could lessen this burden, but the safety, applicability, and clinical outcomes of this strategy need to be carefully defined. We enrolled 102 stable liver recipients at least 3 years after transplantation in a(More)
γδ T cells are innate-type lymphocytes that preferentially act as regulators of local effector immune responses. Recent reports found an altered distribution of the two main subpopulations of blood γδ T cells (Vδ1 and Vδ2) in operationally tolerant liver transplant recipients. Based on this, γδ T cells subset quantification was proposed as a biomarker of(More)