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M any of the world's fish populations are overexploited, and the ecosystems that sustain them are degraded (1). Unintended consequences of fishing, including habitat destruction, incidental mortality of nontarget species, evolutionary shifts in population demographics, and changes in the function and structure of ecosystems, are being increasingly(More)
Natural selection should favor females that avoid ovipositing where risk of predation is high for their progeny. Despite the large consequences of such oviposition behavior for individual fitness, population dynamics, and community structure, relatively few studies have tested for this behavior. Moreover, these studies have rarely assessed the mode of(More)
L ong-term studies of natural populations have revealed the presence of ageing, in the form of an increase in probability of death and a decline in fertility with advancing adult age 1,2. Only a small proportion of individuals survive to become aged in nature 3 , and the effects of ageing are much more obvious in captive populations living in benign(More)
Trade-offs between growth and mortality can occur for a variety of reasons. These include foraging and predation risk, growth and mature function, growth and somatic development, growth and immune function, or growth and resistance to physiological stressors. We use a simple life-history model to show how individual trade-offs between growth and mortality(More)
We used field observations of freely foraging Aphytis aonidiae parasitoids in conjunction with results of laboratory studies of A. aonidiae and other Aphytis species to simulate lifetime patterns of behavior and reproduction. Field observations provided estimates of encounter rates with three classes of hosts, the mortality rate from predation on adult(More)
A model at the level of the foraging trip for the indirect effects of krill (Euphausia superba) fisheries on krill predators Abstract We present a model at the level of the foraging trip for the effects of a fishery on krill (Euphausia superba) predators, using the Adelie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) as a model organism. The model involves: (i) the(More)
Invasive fishes, via competition and predation, may be an important factor in endangering populations of amphibians and other aquatic fauna. The mosquito-fish, Gambusia affinis, commonly stocked into amphibian breeding sites for mosquito control worldwide, has recently been found in some breeding sites of the endangered fire salamander Salamandra(More)
Marine reserves are a promising tool for fisheries management and conservation of biodiversity, but they are not a panacea for fisheries management problems. For fisheries that target highly mobile single species with little or no by-catch or habitat impact, marine reserves provide few benefits compared to conventional fishery management tools. For(More)
1. Senescence is intimately connected with physiological state, which is affected by the environment. Two aspects of the environment – stress and caloric intake – are investigated in the context of senescence, particularly in the context of repair of damage caused by endogenous and exogenous stressors. 2. In a simple life-history model, the organism is(More)