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The oxidatively induced DNA lesions 2,6-diamino-4-hydroxy-5-formamidopyrimidine (FapyG) and 4,6-diamino-5-formamidopyrimidine (FapyA) are formed abundantly in DNA of cultured cells or tissues exposed to ionizing radiation or to other free radical-generating systems. In vitro studies indicate that these lesions are miscoding, can block the progression of DNA(More)
5,6-Dihydro-2'-deoxyuridin-6-yl (1) was independently generated via photolysis of 3. The radical is an analogue of the major reactive species produced from thymidine upon reaction with hydroxyl radical, which is the dominant DNA-damaging agent produced by the indirect effect of gamma-radiolysis. Under aerobic conditions, the peroxyl radical (2) derived from(More)
A broad scientific community is involved in investigations aimed at delineating the mechanisms of formation and cellular processing of oxidatively generated damage to nucleic acids. Perhaps as a consequence of this breadth of research expertise, there are nomenclature problems for several of the oxidized bases including 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoGua),(More)
Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites are ubiquitous DNA lesions that are highly mutagenic and cytotoxic if not repaired. In addition, clusters of two or more abasic lesions within one to two turns of DNA, a hallmark of ionizing radiation, are repaired much less efficiently and thus present greater mutagenic potential. Abasic sites are chemically labile, but(More)
A nucleopeptide was prepared in a convergent manner via segmental coupling of the protected biopolymers in solution. The resulting nucleopeptide (4b, 72%) containing the binding site of lambda repressor and a peptide containing the consensus sequence of the DNA binding helix of the helix turn-helix-proteins was obtained using only five equivalents of the(More)
Fapy.dG and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) are formed in DNA by hydroxyl radical damage. In order to study replication past these lesions in cells, we constructed a single-stranded shuttle vector containing the lesion in 5'-TGT and 5'-TGA sequence contexts. Replication of the modified vector in simian kidney (COS-7) cells showed that Fapy.dG(More)
Fapy.dG (N(6)()-(2-deoxy-alpha,beta-d-erythropentofuranosyl)-2,6-diamino-4-hydroxy-5-formamidopyrimidine) is a modified purine lesion produced by a variety of DNA-damaging agents, which shows interesting biochemical properties. The previous method for synthesizing oligonucleotides containing Fapy.dG utilized a reverse dinucleotide phosphoramidite, which(More)
The mammalian DNA glycosylase, NEIL1, specific for repair of oxidatively damaged bases in the genome via the base excision repair pathway, is activated by reactive oxygen species and prevents toxicity due to radiation. We show here that the Werner syndrome protein (WRN), a member of the RecQ family of DNA helicases, associates with NEIL1 in the early(More)
The C4'-oxidized abasic site (C4-AP) is produced in DNA as a result of oxidative stress. A recent report suggests that this lesion forms interstrand cross-links. Using duplexes in which C4-AP is produced from a synthetic precursor, we show that the lesion produces interstrand cross-links in which both strands are in tact and cross-links in which the C4-AP(More)