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It has been documented that methadone maintenance treatment is effective in reducing drug craving and relevant risk behaviors in heroin users. However, it is not understood whether methadone maintenance treatment impairs the dopamine transporter in the striatum. To establish whether chronic opiate use might impair brain dopamine neurons in humans, we(More)
Cocaine craving has been implicated as a major factor underlying addiction and drug relapse. From a cognitive viewpoint, craving may reflect, in part, attentional processing biased in favor of drug-related cues and stimuli. Schizophrenic individuals (SZ), however, abuse cocaine in high numbers but typically manifest baseline cognitive deficits that impair(More)
BACKGROUND Cocaine treatment upregulates brain mu-opioid receptors (mOR) in animals. Human data regarding this phenomenon are limited. We previously used positron emission tomography (PET) with [11C]-carfentanil to show increased mOR binding in brain regions of 10 cocaine-dependent men after 1 and 28 days of abstinence. METHODS Regional brain mOR binding(More)
BACKGROUND The Marijuana Craving Questionnaire (MCQ) is a valid and reliable, 47-item self-report instrument that assesses marijuana craving along four dimensions: compulsivity, emotionality, expectancy, and purposefulness. For use in research and clinical settings, we constructed a 12-item version of the MCQ by selecting three items from each of the four(More)
This study investigates the clinical significance of a cannabis withdrawal syndrome in 104 adult, non-treatment-seeking, primarily cannabis users who reported at least one serious attempt to stop using cannabis. Retrospective self-report data were obtained on eighteen potential cannabis withdrawal symptoms derived from the literature, including(More)
A few recent studies provide evidence for performance impairment in dependent opioid abusers enrolled in methadone maintenance programs. However, it is difficult to differentiate the effects of a history of long-term opioid (or polydrug) abuse from the effects of methadone maintenance itself. The purpose of the present study was to address this issue by(More)
BACKGROUND Cocaine-dependent individuals demonstrate attentional bias when measured by Stroop color-naming tasks that have been modified to include cocaine-related words. However, the relationship between attentional bias and the treatment-seeking status of cocaine-dependent individuals has never been explored. The purpose of this study was to compare(More)
BACKGROUND Contingency management interventions that provide tangible incentives based on objective indicators of drug abstinence have improved treatment outcomes of substance abusers, but have not been widely implemented in community drug abuse treatment settings. OBJECTIVE To compare outcomes achieved when a lower-cost prize-based contingency management(More)
OBJECTIVE Individuals with direct care responsibilities in 348 drug abuse treatment units were surveyed to obtain a description of the workforce and to assess support for evidence-based therapies. METHODS Surveys were distributed to 112 programs participating in the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN). Descriptive analyses(More)
BACKGROUND Cocaine users not seeking treatment have increased regional brain mu-opioid receptor (mOR) binding that correlates with cocaine craving and tendency to relapse. In cocaine-abusing outpatients in treatment, the relationship of mOR binding and treatment outcome is unknown. METHODS We determined whether regional brain mOR binding before treatment(More)