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It has been documented that methadone maintenance treatment is effective in reducing drug craving and relevant risk behaviors in heroin users. However, it is not understood whether methadone maintenance treatment impairs the dopamine transporter in the striatum. To establish whether chronic opiate use might impair brain dopamine neurons in humans, we(More)
Cocaine craving has been implicated as a major factor underlying addiction and drug relapse. From a cognitive viewpoint, craving may reflect, in part, attentional processing biased in favor of drug-related cues and stimuli. Schizophrenic individuals (SZ), however, abuse cocaine in high numbers but typically manifest baseline cognitive deficits that impair(More)
BACKGROUND Contingency management interventions that provide tangible incentives based on objective indicators of drug abstinence have improved treatment outcomes of substance abusers, but have not been widely implemented in community drug abuse treatment settings. OBJECTIVE To compare outcomes achieved when a lower-cost prize-based contingency management(More)
BACKGROUND The Marijuana Craving Questionnaire (MCQ) is a valid and reliable, 47-item self-report instrument that assesses marijuana craving along four dimensions: compulsivity, emotionality, expectancy, and purposefulness. For use in research and clinical settings, we constructed a 12-item version of the MCQ by selecting three items from each of the four(More)
To date, there has not been a time-efficient and resource-conscious way to identify cognitive impairment in patients with substance use disorders (SUDs). In this study, we assessed the validity, accuracy, and clinical utility of a brief (10-min) screening instrument, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), in identifying cognitive impairment among(More)
The current retrospective study compared the psychiatric and lifestyle characteristics of two groups of treatment-seeking pregnant, opiate and/or cocaine dependent women admitted to the Center for Addiction and Pregnancy (CAP). Women reporting past and/or current suicidal ideation (SI) (46%; n = 35) were compared to women who did not report thoughts of(More)
Fundamental to cognitive models of addiction is the gradual strengthening of automatic, urge-related responding that develops in tandem with the diminution of self-control-related processes aimed at inhibiting impulses. Recent conceptualizations of addiction also include a third set of cognitive processes related to self-awareness and superordinate(More)
BACKGROUND Cannabis withdrawal is not recognized in DSM-IV because of doubts about its clinical significance. OBJECTIVES Assess the phenomenon of cannabis withdrawal and its relationship to relapse in non-treatment-seeking adults. SUBJECTS Convenience sample of 469 adult cannabis smokers who had made a quit attempt while not in a controlled environment.(More)
BACKGROUND Cocaine treatment upregulates brain mu-opioid receptors (mOR) in animals. Human data regarding this phenomenon are limited. We previously used positron emission tomography (PET) with [11C]-carfentanil to show increased mOR binding in brain regions of 10 cocaine-dependent men after 1 and 28 days of abstinence. METHODS Regional brain mOR binding(More)
A few recent studies provide evidence for performance impairment in dependent opioid abusers enrolled in methadone maintenance programs. However, it is difficult to differentiate the effects of a history of long-term opioid (or polydrug) abuse from the effects of methadone maintenance itself. The purpose of the present study was to address this issue by(More)