Learn More
Studies in animals have documented that, compared with glucose, dietary fructose induces dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. To assess the relative effects of these dietary sugars during sustained consumption in humans, overweight and obese subjects consumed glucose- or fructose-sweetened beverages providing 25% of energy requirements for 10 weeks.(More)
The mechanism of CD4(+) T cell depletion in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection remains controversial. Using deuterated glucose to label the DNA of proliferating cells in vivo, we studied T cell dynamics in four normal subjects and seven HIV-1-infected patients naive to antiretroviral drugs. The results were analyzed using a newly developed(More)
Synaptic plasticity plays a crucial role in learning, memory, and cognitive disorders. Cytoskeletal reorganization underlies neuronal synaptic plasticity, but little is known about the regulation of cytoskeletal dynamics in living animals. We used stable isotope labeling to measure the turnover of tubulin in defined microtubule (MT) populations in murine(More)
Insulin resistance is necessary but not sufficient for the development of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes results when pancreatic beta-cells fail to compensate for insulin resistance by increasing insulin production through an expansion of beta-cell mass or increased insulin secretion. Communication between insulin target tissues and beta-cells may initiate this(More)
The turnover of adipose tissue components (lipids and cells) and the pathways of adipose lipid deposition have been difficult to measure in humans. We apply here a (2)H(2)O long-term labeling technique for concurrent measurement of adipose-triglyceride (TG) turnover, cell (DNA) proliferation, and de novo lipogenesis (DNL). Healthy subjects drank (2)H(2)O(More)
We examined the effect of two commonly consumed over-the-counter analgesics, ibuprofen and acetaminophen, on muscle protein synthesis and soreness after high-intensity eccentric resistance exercise. Twenty-four males (25 +/- 3 yr, 180 +/- 6 cm, 81 +/- 6 kg, and 17 +/- 8% body fat) were assigned to one of three groups that received either the maximal(More)
Progressive HIV disease has been associated with loss of memory T cell responses to Ag. To better characterize and quantify long-lived memory T cells in vivo, we have refined an in vivo labeling technique to study the kinetics of phenotypically distinct, low-frequency CD8(+) T cell subpopulations in humans. HIV-negative subjects and antiretroviral-untreated(More)
Calorie restriction (CR) increases longevity and retards the development of many chronic diseases, but the underlying metabolic signals are poorly understood. Increased fatty acid (FA) oxidation and reduced FA synthesis have been hypothesized to be important metabolic adaptations to CR. However, at metabolic steady state, FA oxidation must match FA intake(More)
Due to its relatively slow clinical progression, B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) is classically described as a disease of accumulation rather than proliferation. However, evidence for various forms of clonal evolution suggests that B-CLL clones may be more dynamic than previously assumed. We used a nonradioactive, stable isotopic labeling method(More)
Obesity develops as a result of altered energy homeostasis favoring fat storage. Here we describe a new transcription co-regulator for adiposity and energy metabolism, SERTA domain containing 2 (TRIP-Br2, also called SERTAD2). TRIP-Br2-null mice are resistant to obesity and obesity-related insulin resistance. Adipocytes of these knockout mice showed greater(More)