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There is evidence for two types of sleep spindle activity, one with a frequency of about 12 cycles/s (cps) and the other of about 14 cps. Visual examination indicates that both spindle types occur independently, whereby the 12-cps spindles are more pronounced in the frontal and the 14-cps spindles in the parietal region. The purpose of this paper is to(More)
Two multiple crossover studies, each involving 12 adult female subjects, were performed to screen for acute sedative effects of eight different plant extracts (Valeriana off., Lavandula off., Passiflora incarnata, Kava-kava, Melissa off., Eschscholzia californica, Hypericum perforatum and Ginkgo biloba). Both studies were placebo-controlled, and a single(More)
The evaluation of EEG-patterns is usually accomplished by visual analysis. Nowadays however, even personal computers are fast enough for an efficient pattern recognition of EEG signals. Using sleep spindles and K-complexes as examples, our aim was to demonstrate how patterns can be detected in an EEG signal with a high degree of accuracy. Furthermore,(More)
The effects of treatment with high doses (300 mg three times daily) of hypericum extract LI 160 on sleep quality and well-being were investigated over a 4-week period. The double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted with 12 older, healthy volunteers in a cross-over design, which included a 2-week wash-out phase between both treatment phases. A(More)
A method for the automatic detection of episodes of wakefulness during sleep is presented. The algorithm is based on the evaluation of the alpha slow-wave index (ASI), a measure that has been developed to detect fluctuations of vigilance in daytime pharmaco-electroencephalogram studies. Its application to sleep data was validated with polysomnographic(More)
In this paper we present a new method to do automatic sleep stage classification. The algorithm consists of basically three modules. A wavelet packet transformation (WPT) is applied to 30 seconds long epochs of EEG recordings to provide localized time-frequency information, a feature generator which quantifies the information and reduce the data set size,(More)
The amount of sleep spindles and K-complexes shows a great interindividual variety of combinations, such as many or few sleep spindles and K-complexes respectively. There seems to be no direct correlation between the amount of sleep spindles and K-complexes intraindividually. In our unselected population - age range between 18 and 77 years - the mean sleep(More)
In a placebo-controlled study, the effects on sleep of single and repeated doses of imipramine and dexnafenodone, an antidepressant drug under development, were investigated in young, healthy volunteers. In contrast to placebo, both drugs suppressed REM sleep substantially after acute and repeated administration. As a consequence, REM sleep latencies(More)
Quantitative EEG is a sensitive method for measuring pharmacological effects on the central nervous system. Nowadays, computers enable EEG data to be stored and spectral parameters to be computed for signals obtained from a large number of electrode locations. However, the statistical analysis of such vast amounts of EEG data is complicated due to the(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVES To model sleep propensity (SP) as a continuous variable across 24 hours and to model the post-noon nap zone, or post-lunch dip in performance, and the early evening trough in SP. METHODS The present model is a variant of the 2-process model with 2 major modifications. (1) The circadian threshold process was replaced by sleep drive R,(More)