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We investigated the effects of an Ironman triathlon race on markers of muscle damage, inflammation and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70). Nine well-trained male triathletes (mean ± SD age 34 ± 5 years; V̇O2peak 66.4 ml kg−1 min−1) participated in the 2004 Western Australia Ironman triathlon race (3.8 km swim, 180 km cycle, 42.2 km run). We assessed jump height,(More)
UNLABELLED Cold water immersion (CWI) has become a popular means of enhancing recovery from various forms of exercise. However, there is minimal scientific information on the physiological effects of CWI following cycling in the heat. PURPOSE To examine the safety and acute thermoregulatory, cardiovascular, metabolic, endocrine, and inflammatory responses(More)
To determine the time course of hemoglobin mass (Hb(mass)) to natural altitude training, Hb(mass), erythropoietin [EPO], reticulocytes, ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) were measured in 13 elite cyclists during, and 10 days after, 3 weeks of sea level (n=5) or altitude (n=8, 2760 m) training. Mean Hb(mass), with a typical error of ∼2%,(More)
With the general acceptance that high ambient temperature and humidity have a detrimental effect on performance, the topic of whole-body cooling and sport performance has received considerable attention from sport scientists, particularly in the lead up to the relatively hot Olympic games of 1996 in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, and 2004 in Athens, Greece. This(More)
The aim of this study was to determine the time course of changes in haemoglobin mass (Hb(mass)) in well-trained cyclists in response to live high:train low (LHTL). Twelve well-trained male cyclists participated in a 3-week LHTL protocol comprising 3,000 m simulated altitude for ~14 h/day. Prior to LHTL duplicate baseline measurements were made of Hb(mass),(More)
Laboratory tests of fitness variables have previously been shown to be valid predictors of cycling time-trial performance. However, due to the influence of drafting, tactics and the variability of power output in mass-start road races, comparisons between laboratory tests and competition performance are limited. The purpose of this study was to compare the(More)
INTRODUCTION A nonlinear dynamic systems model has previously been proposed to explain pacing strategies employed during exercise. PURPOSE This study was conducted to examine the pacing strategies used under varying conditions during the cycle phase of an Ironman triathlon. METHODS The bicycles of six well-trained male triathletes were equipped with SRM(More)
PURPOSE Although dehydration can impair endurance performance, a reduced body mass may benefit uphill cycling by increasing the power-to-mass ratio. This study examined the effects of a reduction in body mass attributable to unreplaced sweat losses on simulated cycling hill-climbing performance in the heat. METHODS Eight well-trained male cyclists (mean(More)
Measurements of exercise heart rate (HR(ex)), HR recovery (HRR) and HR variability (HRV) are used as indices of training status. However, the day-to-day variability of these indices throughout a competitive soccer period is unknown. On 14 occasions during a 3-week competition camp, 18 under 15 (U15) and 15 under 17 (U17) years soccer players performed a(More)
BACKGROUND Numerous laboratory based studies have documented that aggressive hydration strategies (approximately 1-2 litres/h) are required to minimise a rise in core temperature and minimise the deleterious effects of hyperthermia on performance. However, field data on the relations between hydration level, core body temperature, and performance are rare.(More)