Marc Heckmann

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BACKGROUND Individuals with intense frowning are commonly perceived as expressing negative emotions. Anger, fear, and sadness are associated with corrugator ("frown") muscle activity. OBJECTIVE We sought to study how faces were perceived by others after denervation of frown muscles with localized botulinum toxin injections for treatment of facial frown(More)
Based on its unique botulinum toxin is referred to as the most poisonous poison. Its specific inhibition of the acetyl-cholin-dependent neuromuscular transmission is used by ophthalmologists and neurologists for the relaxation of spastic or dystonic muscles, preferably in muscle groups in the head and neck area. Analogously, it is being used by(More)
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