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BACKGROUND Although botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) is a common aesthetic intervention, there are few published data on treatment over more than two cycles. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effectiveness/safety of repeated doses of BoNT-A (Dysport, Ipsen Ltd., Slough, UK) in the upper face for reduction of wrinkles. METHODS Retrospective, cross-sectional(More)
BACKGROUND Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common type of skin cancer in whites. Long-term exposure to UV radiation is considered a major risk factor. We decided to investigate whether maximally exposed areas of the body are also the most frequent sites where BCCs develop. DESIGN Retrospective analysis of distribution and histopathologic features(More)
BACKGROUND Treatment of primary focal hyperhidrosis is often unsatisfactory. Botulinum toxin A can stop excessive sweating by blocking the release of acetylcholine, which mediates sympathetic neurotransmission in the sweat glands. METHODS We conducted a multicenter trial of botulinum toxin A in 145 patients with axillary hyperhidrosis. The patients had(More)
BACKGROUND Although topical application of aluminium chloride is the most common measure against axillary sweating, severely affected patients often undergo surgical procedures that are expensive and may have considerable side effects. Recently botulinum toxin A (BT-A) has been reported as a potentially effective antihyperhidrotic agent. OBJECTIVE Our(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare 2 doses of botulinum toxin A in view of dose-dependent efficacy, longevity, and safety. DESIGN Side-by-side, controlled, randomized clinical trial with extended follow-up over 2 treatment cycles. Patients were injected with 200 U of botulinum toxin A (Dysport; Ipsen Ltd, Wrexham, England) into one axilla and 100 U into the other(More)
BACKGROUND Published evidence suggests that botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) is an effective treatment for crow's feet. However, few dose-ranging studies have been performed. OBJECTIVES To assess the safety and efficacy of a single treatment with one of four doses of BTX-A (Botox/Vistabel, Allergan Inc) compared with placebo for the improvement of crow's(More)
BACKGROUND Primary focal hyperhidrosis (PFH) is defined as excessive sweating typically localized to specific body areas such as axillae, hands and feet. An association between PFH and anxiety as well as depressive syndromes has been suggested. OBJECTIVES To investigate a possible association between PFH and anxiety, depression, social phobia and quality(More)
BACKGROUND Botulinum toxin type A (BT-A) is increasingly being used by dermatologists for correction of frown lines. Because objective measurements of clinical results appear to be difficult, several different treatment protocols have been issued purely empirically or on the basis of subjective ratings. OBJECTIVE Our purpose was to establish objective(More)
BACKGROUND Individuals with intense frowning are commonly perceived as expressing negative emotions. Anger, fear, and sadness are associated with corrugator ("frown") muscle activity. OBJECTIVE We sought to study how faces were perceived by others after denervation of frown muscles with localized botulinum toxin injections for treatment of facial frown(More)
Fibrotic reactions in the skin are frequently preceded by infiltration of inflammatory cells and subsequent migration of fibroblastic cells. Interleukin-1 is secreted by inflammatory cells and can regulate proliferation and protein synthesis of fibroblasts. Its role in fibroblast chemotaxis has not been elucidated in any detail. Using the well-established(More)