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Static models of braided pneumatic muscles (BPMs) reported in the research literature fairly accurately predict the muscle-force-carrying capacity. These models, however, rely on experimentally determined parameters that are valid only for the specific muscle configuration under consideration. This paper presents a fully analytical BPM static model that(More)
Purpose. Injecting triamcinolone acetonide (TA) into a keloid is physically challenging due to the density of keloids. The purpose was to investigate the effects of various syringe and needle combinations on the injection force to determine the most ergonomic combination. Materials and Methods. A load cell was used to generate and measure the injection(More)
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