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Monocytes and cells of the dendritic cell lineage circulate in blood and eventually migrate into tissue where they further mature and serve various functions, most notably in immune defense. Over recent years these cells have been characterized in detail with the use of cell surface markers and flow cytometry, and subpopulations have been described. The(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) are a complex group of cells that play a critical role in vertebrate immunity. Lymph-node resident DCs (LN-DCs) are subdivided into conventional DC (cDC) subsets (CD11b and CD8α in mouse; BDCA1 and BDCA3 in human) and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs). It is currently unclear if these various DC populations belong to a unique hematopoietic(More)
NKp46+CD3- natural killer lymphocytes isolated from blood, lymphoid organs, lung, liver and uterus can produce granule-dependent cytotoxicity and interferon-gamma. Here we identify in dermis, gut lamina propria and cryptopatches distinct populations of NKp46+CD3- cells with a diminished capacity to degranulate and produce interferon-gamma. In the gut,(More)
Human BDCA3+ dendritic cells (DCs) were suggested to be homologous to mouse CD8alpha+ DCs. We demonstrate that human BDCA3+ DCs are more efficient than their BDCA1+ counterparts or plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) in cross-presenting antigen and activating CD8+ T cells, which is similar to mouse CD8alpha+ DCs as compared with CD11b+ DCs or pDCs, although with more(More)
Small intestinal CD103(+) dendritic cells (DCs) have the selective ability to promote de novo generation of regulatory T cells via the production of retinoic acid (RA). Considering that aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity controls the production of RA, we used a flow cytometry-based assay to measure ALDH activity at the single-cell level and to perform a(More)
In the skin, the lack of markers permitting the unambiguous identification of macrophages and of conventional and monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) complicates understanding of their contribution to skin integrity and to immune responses. By combining CD64 and CCR2 staining, we successfully identified each of these cell types and studied their origin,(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) are critical regulators of immune responses. Under noninflammatory conditions, several human DC subsets have been identified. Little is known, however, about the human DC compartment under inflammatory conditions. Here, we characterize a DC population found in human inflammatory fluids that displayed a phenotype distinct from(More)
NK cell cytotoxicity, IFN-gamma expression, proliferation, and accumulation are rapidly induced after murine CMV infections. Under these conditions, the responses were shown to be elicited in overlapping populations. Nevertheless, there were distinct signaling molecule requirements for induction of functions within the subsets. IL-12/STAT4 was critical for(More)
Antiviral immunity requires early and late mechanisms in which IFN-alpha and IL-12 play major roles. However, the initial events leading to their production remain largely unclear. Given the crucial role of TLR in innate recognition, we investigated their role in antiviral immunity in vivo. Upon murine CMV (MCMV) infection, both MyD88-/- and TLR9-/- mice(More)
During evolution, vertebrates have developed an adaptive immune system able to cope with a variety of pathogens. Dendritic cells (DCs) are central to this process. DCs integrate information derived from pathogens or endogenous danger signals and convey them to T lymphocytes. Most of the present knowledge on DCs was generated in mice or by using human DCs(More)