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RATIONALE New approaches to define factors underlying the immunopathogenesis of pulmonary diseases including sarcoidosis and tuberculosis are needed to develop new treatments and biomarkers. Comparing the blood transcriptional response of tuberculosis to other similar pulmonary diseases will advance knowledge of disease pathways and help distinguish(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW The purpose of this review is to describe the epidemiology, clinical features, putative immune mechanisms and management of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) using data published in the last 2 years. RECENT FINDINGS Ever more conditions are reported as IRIS events. These most frequently occur with mycobacterial(More)
BACKGROUND Drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB), especially multidrug-resistant (MDR, resistance to rifampicin and isoniazid) disease, is associated with a worse patient outcome. Drug resistance diagnosed using microbiological culture takes days to weeks, as TB bacteria grow slowly. Rapid molecular tests for drug resistance detection (1 day) are commercially(More)
BACKGROUND The benefit of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the treatment of patients coinfected with tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is unclear because of concerns about treatment-related complications. METHODS We compared outcomes in patients starting TB treatment during the pre-HAART era (before 1996; n=36) with(More)
BACKGROUND Randomized trials assessing BCG vaccine protection against tuberculosis have widely varying results, for reasons that are not well understood. METHODS We examined associations of trial setting and design with BCG efficacy against pulmonary and miliary or meningeal tuberculosis by conducting a systematic review, meta-analyses, and(More)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis can cause lung tissue damage to spread, but the mechanisms driving this immunopathology are poorly understood. The breakdown of lung matrix involves MMPs, which have a unique ability to degrade fibrillar collagens at neutral pH. To determine whether MMPs play a role in the immunopathology of tuberculosis (TB), we profiled MMPs and(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the occurrence of viral load greater than 50 copies/ml in patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) having achieved less than 50 copies/ml and the chance of whether a viral load greater than 50 copies/ml would lead to a sustained and increasing viral load. DESIGN A cohort of 553 patients on HAART with viral loads of less(More)
HIV and tuberculosis (TB) are leading global causes of mortality and morbidity, and yet effective treatment exists for both conditions. Rifamycin-based antituberculosis therapy can cure HIV-related TB and, where available, the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has markedly reduced the incidence of AIDS and death. Optimal treatment(More)
Because tuberculosis (TB) is primarily a pulmonary disease, we examined the cytokine responses of CD4(+) T lymphocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid after incubation with purified protein derivative (PPD) in human immunodeficiency virus-negative patients with TB and control subjects with nontuberculous respiratory disease. Parallel blood and BAL(More)