Marc Caeroos Isaac Lipman

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RATIONALE New approaches to define factors underlying the immunopathogenesis of pulmonary diseases including sarcoidosis and tuberculosis are needed to develop new treatments and biomarkers. Comparing the blood transcriptional response of tuberculosis to other similar pulmonary diseases will advance knowledge of disease pathways and help distinguish(More)
RATIONALE Globally there are approximately 9 million new active tuberculosis cases and 1.4 million deaths annually. Effective antituberculosis treatment monitoring is difficult as there are no existing biomarkers of poor adherence or inadequate treatment earlier than 2 months after treatment initiation. Inadequate treatment leads to worsening disease,(More)
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES Blood-based studies have demonstrated the potential of immunological assays to detect tuberculosis. However lung fluid sampling may prove superior as it enables simultaneous microbiological detection of mycobacteria to be performed. Until now this has only been possible using the expensive and invasive technique of broncho-alveolar(More)
OBJECTIVES Respiratory infections are responsible for a large global burden of disease. We assessed the public and philanthropic investments awarded to UK institutions for respiratory infectious disease research to identify areas of underinvestment. We aimed to identify projects and categorise them by pathogen, disease and position along the research and(More)
Despite advances in antimicrobials, vaccination and public health measures, infectious diseases remain a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. With the increase in antimicrobial resistance and the emergence of new pathogens, there remains a need for new and more accurate diagnostics, the ability to monitor adequate treatment response as well(More)
The use of human whole blood for transcriptomic analysis has potential advantages over the use of isolated immune cells for studying the transcriptional response to pathogens and their products. Whole blood stimulation can be carried out in a laboratory without the expertise or equipment to isolate immune cells from blood, with the added advantage of being(More)
BACKGROUND Traditional tuberculosis (TB) treatment outcome measures, such as cure rate, do not provide insight into the underlying reasons for missing clinical targets. We evaluated a TB Process-Based Performance Review (TB-PBPR) tool, developed to identify "missed opportunities" for timely and accurate diagnosis of TB. The tool enables performance(More)
We estimated the rate of reactivation tuberculosis (TB) in the United States, overall and by population subgroup, using data on TB cases and Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolate genotyping reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention during 2006-2008. The rate of reactivation TB was defined as the number of non-genotypically clustered TB cases(More)
Although there are wide differences in prognosis between patients with AIDS they are often thought of as a single homogeneous group. We think a simple staging system that accounts for important prognostic factors including type and number of AIDS diseases and the CD4 lymphocyte count is required. We followed 363 AIDS patients at the Royal Free Hospital and(More)
BACKGROUND The incidence of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) isolation from humans is increasing worldwide. In England, Wales and Northern Ireland (EW&NI) the reported rate of NTM more than doubled between 1996 and 2006. Although NTM infection has traditionally been associated with immunosuppressed individuals or those with severe underlying lung damage,(More)