Marc Caeroos Isaac Lipman

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RATIONALE New approaches to define factors underlying the immunopathogenesis of pulmonary diseases including sarcoidosis and tuberculosis are needed to develop new treatments and biomarkers. Comparing the blood transcriptional response of tuberculosis to other similar pulmonary diseases will advance knowledge of disease pathways and help distinguish(More)
RATIONALE Globally there are approximately 9 million new active tuberculosis cases and 1.4 million deaths annually. Effective antituberculosis treatment monitoring is difficult as there are no existing biomarkers of poor adherence or inadequate treatment earlier than 2 months after treatment initiation. Inadequate treatment leads to worsening disease,(More)
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES Blood-based studies have demonstrated the potential of immunological assays to detect tuberculosis. However lung fluid sampling may prove superior as it enables simultaneous microbiological detection of mycobacteria to be performed. Until now this has only been possible using the expensive and invasive technique of broncho-alveolar(More)
OBJECTIVES Respiratory infections are responsible for a large global burden of disease. We assessed the public and philanthropic investments awarded to UK institutions for respiratory infectious disease research to identify areas of underinvestment. We aimed to identify projects and categorise them by pathogen, disease and position along the research and(More)
Despite advances in antimicrobials, vaccination and public health measures, infectious diseases remain a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. With the increase in antimicrobial resistance and the emergence of new pathogens, there remains a need for new and more accurate diagnostics, the ability to monitor adequate treatment response as well(More)
The use of human whole blood for transcriptomic analysis has potential advantages over the use of isolated immune cells for studying the transcriptional response to pathogens and their products. Whole blood stimulation can be carried out in a laboratory without the expertise or equipment to isolate immune cells from blood, with the added advantage of being(More)
BACKGROUND Traditional tuberculosis (TB) treatment outcome measures, such as cure rate, do not provide insight into the underlying reasons for missing clinical targets. We evaluated a TB Process-Based Performance Review (TB-PBPR) tool, developed to identify "missed opportunities" for timely and accurate diagnosis of TB. The tool enables performance(More)
We estimated the rate of reactivation tuberculosis (TB) in the United States, overall and by population subgroup, using data on TB cases and Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolate genotyping reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention during 2006-2008. The rate of reactivation TB was defined as the number of non-genotypically clustered TB cases(More)
Anti-tuberculosis drug regimens are efficacious, but drug intolerance can be severe and may impact on treatment completion rates. The Enhanced Tuberculosis Surveillance (ETS) system is a case register of all new notifications of tuberculosis in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. We conducted a cohort study to estimate the incidence of, and risk factors(More)
BACKGROUND Information leaflets are widely used to increase awareness and knowledge of disease. Limited research has, to date, been undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of these information resources. This pilot study sought to determine whether information leaflets developed specifically for staff working with substance mis-users improved knowledge of(More)