Marc Caeroos Isaac Lipman

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PURPOSE OF REVIEW The purpose of this review is to describe the epidemiology, clinical features, putative immune mechanisms and management of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) using data published in the last 2 years. RECENT FINDINGS Ever more conditions are reported as IRIS events. These most frequently occur with mycobacterial(More)
BACKGROUND Randomized trials assessing BCG vaccine protection against tuberculosis have widely varying results, for reasons that are not well understood. METHODS We examined associations of trial setting and design with BCG efficacy against pulmonary and miliary or meningeal tuberculosis by conducting a systematic review, meta-analyses, and(More)
RATIONALE New approaches to define factors underlying the immunopathogenesis of pulmonary diseases including sarcoidosis and tuberculosis are needed to develop new treatments and biomarkers. Comparing the blood transcriptional response of tuberculosis to other similar pulmonary diseases will advance knowledge of disease pathways and help distinguish(More)
OBJECTIVES To describe the characteristics of deaths that occur among HIV-positive individuals in the HAART era. DESIGN Observational database. METHODS Deaths were reviewed that occurred among HIV-positive individuals seen at the Royal Free Hospital, London between January 1998 and December 2003. RESULTS Over the study period, there were 121 deaths;(More)
Two decades ago, WHO declared tuberculosis a global emergency, and invested in the highly cost-effective directly observed treatment short-course programme to control the epidemic. At that time, most strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were susceptible to first-line tuberculosis drugs, and drug resistance was not a major issue. However, in 2013,(More)
RATIONALE Globally there are approximately 9 million new active tuberculosis cases and 1.4 million deaths annually. Effective antituberculosis treatment monitoring is difficult as there are no existing biomarkers of poor adherence or inadequate treatment earlier than 2 months after treatment initiation. Inadequate treatment leads to worsening disease,(More)
BACKGROUND Drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB), especially multidrug-resistant (MDR, resistance to rifampicin and isoniazid) disease, is associated with a worse patient outcome. Drug resistance diagnosed using microbiological culture takes days to weeks, as TB bacteria grow slowly. Rapid molecular tests for drug resistance detection (1 day) are commercially(More)
Tuberculosis (TB) is the most common opportunistic disease in HIV-infected patients during the initial months of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and presents a great challenge to ART programs in resource-limited settings. The mechanisms underlying development of TB in this period are complex. Some cases may represent progression of undiagnosed subclinical(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the occurrence of viral load greater than 50 copies/ml in patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) having achieved less than 50 copies/ml and the chance of whether a viral load greater than 50 copies/ml would lead to a sustained and increasing viral load. DESIGN A cohort of 553 patients on HAART with viral loads of less(More)
BACKGROUND Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is an increasing challenge to health services globally. Although new drugs are in development, current guidelines still recommend prolonged use of injectable antimicrobials (usually amikacin, kanamycin or capreomycin). The evidence base to inform treatment and monitoring strategies is very limited. (More)