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Motors generating mechanical force, powered by the hydrolysis of ATP, translocate double-stranded DNA into preformed capsids (proheads) of bacterial viruses and certain animal viruses. Here we describe the motor that packages the double-stranded DNA of the Bacillus subtilis bacteriophage phi29 into a precursor capsid. We determined the structure of the(More)
Bacteriophage phi29 is one of the smallest and simplest known dsDNA phages, making it amenable to structural investigations. The three-dimensional structure of a fiberless, isometric variant has been determined to 7.9 A resolution by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), allowing the identification of alpha helices and beta sheets. Their arrangement indicates(More)
Cryo-electron microscopy three-dimensional reconstructions have been made of mature and of emptied bacteriophage phi29 particles without making symmetry assumptions. Comparisons of these structures with each other and with the phi29 prohead indicate how conformational changes might initiate successive steps of assembly and infection. The 12 adsorption(More)
The 2-haloalkanoic acid dehalogenase (HAD) family, which contains both carbon and phosphoryl transferases, is one of the largest known enzyme superfamilies. HAD members conserve an alpha,beta-core domain that frames the four-loop active-site platform. Each loop contributes one or more catalytic groups, which function in mediating the core chemistry (i.e.,(More)
Although many viruses are icosahedral when they initially bind to one or more receptor molecules on the cell surface, such an interaction is asymmetric, probably causing a breakdown in the symmetry and conformation of the original infecting virion in preparation for membrane penetration and release of the viral genome. Cryoelectron microscopy and(More)
Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a member of the Bunyaviridae virus family (genus Phlebovirus) and is considered to be one of the most important pathogens in Africa, causing viral zoonoses in livestock and humans. Here, we report the characterization of the three-dimensional structural organization of RVFV vaccine strain MP-12 by cryoelectron tomography.(More)
Unraveling the structure and assembly of the DNA packaging ATPases of the tailed double-stranded DNA bacteriophages is integral to understanding the mechanism of DNA translocation. Here, the bacteriophage phi29 packaging ATPase gene product 16 (gp16) was overexpressed in soluble form in Bacillus subtilis (pSAC), purified to near homogeneity, and assembled(More)
UNLABELLED The tailed double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) bacteriophage 29 packages its 19.3-kbp genome into a preassembled procapsid structure by using a transiently assembled phage-encoded molecular motor. This process is remarkable considering that compaction of DNA to near-crystalline densities within the confined space of the capsid requires that the packaging(More)
Phosphonoacetaldehyde hydrolase (phosphonatase) catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphonoacetaldehyde to acetaldehyde and phosphate using Mg(II) as cofactor. The reaction proceeds via a novel bicovalent catalytic mechanism in which an active-site nucleophile abstracts the phosphoryl group from the Schiff-base intermediate formed from Lys53 and(More)
Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) studies of the bacteriophage phi29 DNA packaging motor have delineated the relative positions and molecular boundaries of the 12-fold symmetric head-tail connector, the 5-fold symmetric prohead RNA (pRNA), the ATPase that provides the energy for packaging, and the procapsid. Reconstructions, assuming 5-fold symmetry, were(More)