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Interferon-regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) is essential for the development of T helper 2 (Th2) and Th17 cells. Herein, we report that IRF4 is also crucial for the development and function of an interleukin-9 (IL-9)-producing CD4(+) T cell subset designated Th9. IRF4-deficient CD4(+) T cells failed to develop into IL-9-producing Th9 cells, and IRF4-specific(More)
Naturally occurring regulatory T cells (T reg cells) are a thymus-derived subset of T cells, which are crucial for the maintenance of peripheral tolerance by controlling potentially autoreactive T cells. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of this strictly cell contact-dependent process are still elusive. Here we show that naturally occurring T reg(More)
Mast cells were formerly thought to contribute mainly to, sometimes even, fatal allergic reactions through the release of biologically highly active cytokines, chemokines, lipid mediators, proteases and biogenic amines. This potential harmful response is triggered by crosslinking of cell-bound IgE by the respective allergen. This review updates our current(More)
By virtue of their ability to express a plethora of biologically highly active mediators, mast cells (MC) are involved in both adaptive and innate immune responses. MC-derived Th2-type cytokines are thought to act as local amplifiers of Th2 reactions, including chronic inflammatory disorders such as allergic asthma, whereas MC-derived TNF-alpha is a(More)
Until recently, IgE-activated mast cells have been regarded merely as effector cells of adaptive immune responses, involved in allergic reactions and mucosal immunity to parasites. Herein, we report that murine dermal mast cells, activated by local administration of a cream containing the synthetic TLR7 ligand imiquimod, are essential to initiate an early(More)
Mast cell-deficient mice are a key for investigating the function of mast cells in health and disease. Allergic airway disease induced as a Th2-type immune response in mice is employed as a model to unravel the mechanisms underlying inception and progression of human allergic asthma. Previous work done in mast cell-deficient mouse strains that otherwise(More)
Mast cells are able to produce a huge panel of mediators including the Th2-type cytokine IL-9, which is considered to be a key mediator for the pathogenesis of allergic asthma, but detailed information on the regulation of IL-9 transcription in mast cells has been scarce. Herein we provide evidence that the erythroid/myeloid transcription factor GATA-1,(More)
Mast cell-deficient Kit(W-sh) "sash" mice are widely used to investigate mast cell functions. However, mutations of c-Kit also affect additional cells of hematopoietic and nonimmune origin. In this study, we demonstrate that Kit(W-sh) causes aberrant extramedullary myelopoiesis characterized by the expansion of immature lineage-negative cells, common(More)
Mast cells are able to trigger life-saving immune responses in murine models for acute inflammation. In such settings, several lines of evidence indicate that the rapid and protective recruitment of neutrophils initiated by the release of mast cell-derived pro-inflammatory mediators is a key element of innate immunity. Herein, we investigate the impact of(More)
The lungs are a noted predilection site of acute, latent, and reactivated cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections. Interstitial pneumonia is the most dreaded manifestation of CMV disease in the immunocompromised host, whereas in the immunocompetent host lung-infiltrating CD8 T cells confine the infection in nodular inflammatory foci and prevent viral pathology. By(More)