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Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype reference strains and 204 A. pleuropneumoniae field strains representing all 12 serotypes and both biovars 1 and 2, obtained from laboratories from various countries worldwide, were analyzed for the presence of the toxin genes apxIC, apxIA, apxIB, apxID, apxIIC, apxIIA, apxIIIC, apxIIIA, apxIIIB, and apxIIID by(More)
This work presents an approach for applying face recognition to non-biological entities (avatars) in virtual worlds to achieve authentication. Massively multiplayer online games involve virtual worlds which require avatar identification to avoid fraud. First, virtual worlds and avatars are briefly discussed. Next, the concepts of facial biometrics and the(More)
Recent advances in genetic engineering have allowed the insertion of artificial DNA strands into the living cells of organisms. Several methods have been developed to insert information into a DNA sequence for the purpose of data storage, watermarking, or communication of secret messages. The ability to detect, extract, and decode messages from DNA is(More)
A method has been developed which allows the determination of the activator, the structural and the secretion genes of the three toxins ApxI, ApxII and ApxIII in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in only two PCR reactions. The oligonucleotide primers were designed to amplify a significant part of the activator and structural genes apxICA, apxIICA and apxIIICA(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE The subgluteal approach is common for sciatic nerve block. Although the surface landmarks are clear, the depth of this nerve at this level is difficult to judge. The purpose of this study is to establish a method of estimating the sciatic nerve depth using the anteroposterior (AP) diameter of the thigh as a marker. METHODS The(More)
Background Steganography is the science of hiding information by transmitting secret messages through unsuspicious cover carriers in a way that makes the presence of any embedded messages undetectable. The term originates in the Greek language and means, “covered writing”. While the goal of cryptography is to make a message unreadable, steganography aims at(More)
Among the twelve different serotypes of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, the causative agent of swine pleuropneumonia, a strongly active hemolysin I (HlyI) is produced by serotypes which are particularly virulent, and less active hemolysin II (HlyII) is produced by all serotypes except type 10. In the serotypes 1, 5a, 5b, 9, 10 and 11, which produce HlyI,(More)
With recent advances in genetic engineering it has become possible to embed artificial DNA strands into the living cells of organisms. With DNA having a great capability for data storage, many methods have been developed to insert artificial information into a DNA sequence. However, most of these methods focus on the encoding of text data and little(More)
For the determination of the apx toxin genes in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae strains, five PCR reactions were developed which allow the detection of the activator and structural genes and the secretion genes of the toxins ApxI, ApxII and ApxIII. The oligonucleotide primers were chosen in order to amplify characteristic parts of the activator and(More)
A Border Gateway Protocol is a path vector routing protocol that coordinates the routing of packets through multiple administrative domains by computing routes between every IP address the packet passes. Certain routers, called BGP speakers, are assigned to run the protocol. BGP speakers across different Autonomous Systems (AS) are interconnected in order(More)
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