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This review aims at presenting state-of-the-art knowledge on the composition and functions of the endothelial glycocalyx. The endothelial glycocalyx is a network of membrane-bound proteoglycans and glycoproteins, covering the endothelium luminally. Both endothelium- and plasma-derived soluble molecules integrate into this mesh. Over the past decade, insight(More)
Neuron and synapse loss are important features of the neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recently, we observed substantial age-related hippocampal neuron loss in APP751SL/PS1M146L transgenic mice but not in PS1M146L mice. Here, we investigated APP751SL mice, PS1M146L mice, and APP751SL/PS1M146L mice for age-related alterations in synaptic integrity(More)
To understand the process of cardiac aging, it is of crucial importance to gain insight into the age-related changes in gene expression in the senescent failing heart. Age-related cardiac remodeling is known to be accompanied by changes in extracellular matrix (ECM) gene and protein levels. Small noncoding microRNAs regulate gene expression in cardiac(More)
Immune mechanisms are known to control the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. However, the exact role of DCs, which are essential for priming of immune responses, remains elusive. We have shown here that the DC-derived chemokine CCL17 is present in advanced human and mouse atherosclerosis and that CCL17+ DCs accumulate in atherosclerotic lesions. In(More)
The objective of this study was to develop and apply cyclic Asn-Gly-Arg (cNGR)-labeled paramagnetic quantum dots (cNGR-pQDs) for the noninvasive assessment of tumor angiogenic activity using quantitative in vivo molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). cNGR was previously shown to colocalize with CD13, an aminopeptidase that is highly overexpressed on(More)
BACKGROUND The molecular pathways that control the wound healing after myocardial infarction (MI) are not completely elucidated. One of these pathways is the Wnt/Frizzled pathway. In this study, we evaluated Frizzled as a novel therapeutic target for MI. These Frizzled proteins act as receptors for Wnt proteins and were previously shown to be expressed in(More)
Conventional high-resolution MRI is capable of detecting lipid-rich atherosclerotic plaques in both human atherosclerosis and animal models of atherosclerosis. In this study we induced neointimal lesions in ApoE-KO mice by placing a constrictive collar around the right carotid artery. The model was imaged with conventional multispectral MRI, and the(More)
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVE Arginase-1 is an important component of the intricate mechanism regulating arginine availability during immune responses and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity. In this study Arg1(fl/fl)/Tie2-Cre(tg/-) mice were developed to investigate the effect of arginase-1 related arginine depletion on NOS2- and NOS3-dependent NO production(More)
MR vessel size imaging (MR-VSI) is increasingly applied to noninvasively assess microvascular properties of tumors and to evaluate tumor response to antiangiogenic treatment. MR-VSI provides measures for the microvessel radius and fractional blood volume of tumor tissue. However, data have not yet been evaluated with three-dimensional microscopy techniques.(More)
BACKGROUND Endothelin-1 (ET-1), a long-acting paracrine mediator, is implicated in cardiovascular diseases but clinical trials with ET-receptor antagonists were not successful in some areas. We tested whether the quasi-irreversible receptor-binding of ET-1 (i) limits reversing effects of the antagonists and (ii) can be selectively dissociated by an(More)