Marc A Christy

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Paralleling our previous mechanistic studies of glatiramer acetate (GA; Copaxone) activity, we show that GA curbs the expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 9 and the universal adapter protein Myd88 in mice with EAE, the animal model for multiple sclerosis. Concurrent with enhanced dendritic cell (DC) production of IL-10, GA interferes with OPN, IL-17, and(More)
The mammalian immune system constitutively senses vast quantities of commensal bacteria and their products through pattern recognition receptors, yet excessive immune reactivity is prevented under homeostasis. The intestinal microbiome can influence host susceptibility to extra-intestinal autoimmune disorders. Here we report that polysaccharide A (PSA), a(More)
B cells are of increasing importance as a target for multiple sclerosis treatment. Here we show that GA treatment of mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) biases cytokine production by B cells towards cytokines associated with regulation in MS including interleukin (IL)-4, -10 and -13 and reduces pro-inflammatory IL-6, IL-12, and TNF(More)
Tolerance established by host-commensal interactions regulates host immunity at both local mucosal and systemic levels. The intestinal commensal strain Bacteroides fragilis elicits immune tolerance, at least in part, via the expression capsular polysaccharide A (PSA). How such niche-specific commensal microbial elements regulate extra-intestinal immune(More)
We recently showed that B cells reduce CNS inflammation in mice with experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE). Here, we demonstrate that adoptively transferred CD5/CD19+ B cells protect against EAE severity. Furthermore, we show that glatiramer acetate (GA), a therapeutic for relapsing multiple sclerosis treatment, amplifies this effect. Transfer of(More)
Polysaccharide A (PSA) derived from the human commensal Bacteroides fragilis is a symbiosis factor that stimulates immunologic development within mammalian hosts. PSA rebalances skewed systemic T helper responses and promotes T regulatory cells (Tregs). However, PSA-mediated induction of Foxp3 in humans has not been reported. In mice, PSA-generated Foxp3(+)(More)
— the security data transmission algorithm in cryptography is Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). The operation mix column consumed more power in the algorithm. In this paper the power consumption of mix column is reduced in order to achive the total power consumption of AES. Using a simple exclusive OR gate that is XOR gate pass transistor logic, the power(More)
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