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Caused by a polyglutamine expansion in the huntingtin protein, Huntington's disease leads to striatal degeneration via the transcriptional dysregulation of a number of genes, including those involved in mitochondrial biogenesis. Here we show that transglutaminase 2, which is upregulated in HD, exacerbates transcriptional dysregulation by acting as a(More)
Vesicular structures called microvesicles (MVs) that are shed from the surfaces of cancer cells are capable of transferring oncogenic cargo to recipient cancer cells, as well as to normal cells, sending mitogenic signals that greatly enhance tumor growth. Because MVs are stable in the circulation, they also may have a key role in secondary colonization and(More)
Tumor progression involves the ability of cancer cells to communicate with each other and with neighboring normal cells in their microenvironment. Microvesicles (MV) derived from human cancer cells have received a good deal of attention because of their ability to participate in the horizontal transfer of signaling proteins between cancer cells and to(More)
Molecular deletion of transglutaminase 2 (TG2) has been shown to improve function and survival in a host of neurological conditions including stroke, Huntington's disease, and Parkinson's disease. However, unifying schemes by which these cross-linking or polyaminating enzymes participate broadly in neuronal death have yet to be presented. Unexpectedly, we(More)
Heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) is a master regulator that coordinates chaperone protein expression to enhance cellular survival in the face of heat stress. In cancer cells, HSF1 drives a transcriptional program distinct from heat shock to promote metastasis and cell survival. Its strong association with the malignant phenotype implies that HSF1 antagonists may(More)
The establishment of a polarized cellular morphology is essential for a variety of processes including neural tube morphogenesis and the development of the brain. Cdc42 is a Ras-related GTPase that plays an essential role in controlling cell polarity through the regulation of the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton architecture. Previous studies have shown(More)
Salicylic acid (SA) and its derivatives have been used for millennia to reduce pain, fever and inflammation. In addition, prophylactic use of acetylsalicylic acid, commonly known as aspirin, reduces the risk of heart attack, stroke and certain cancers. Because aspirin is rapidly de-acetylated by esterases in human plasma, much of aspirin's bioactivity can(More)
Most cancer cells undergo characteristic metabolic changes that are commonly referred to as the Warburg effect, with one of the hallmarks being a dramatic increase in the rate of lactic acid fermentation. This leads to the production of protons, which in turn acidifies the microenvironment surrounding tumors. Cancer cells have acquired resistance to acid(More)
Communication between the inner cell mass (ICM) and the trophoblast layer of the blastocyst is known to occur, but its functional consequences on early developmental events is unclear. Here we demonstrate that embryonic stem (ES) cells derived from the ICM generate and shed microvesicles (MVs), a major class of extracellular vesicles (EVs), which influence(More)