Mara Z. Vitolins

Learn More
IMPORTANCE Menopausal hormone therapy continues in clinical use but questions remain regarding its risks and benefits for chronic disease prevention. OBJECTIVE To report a comprehensive, integrated overview of findings from the 2 Women's Health Initiative (WHI) hormone therapy trials with extended postintervention follow-up. DESIGN, SETTING, AND(More)
BACKGROUND Triple-negative (ie, estrogen receptor [ER], progesterone receptor, and HER2 negative) breast cancer occurs disproportionately among African American women compared with white women and is associated with a worse prognosis than ER-positive (ER+) breast cancer. Hormonally mediated risk factors may be differentially related to risk of(More)
BACKGROUND Although some observational studies have associated higher calcium intake and especially higher vitamin D intake and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels with lower breast cancer risk, no randomized trial has evaluated these relationships. METHODS Postmenopausal women (N = 36 282) who were enrolled in a Women's Health Initiative clinical trial were(More)
CONTEXT Obesity in the United States has increased dramatically during the past several decades. There is debate about optimum calorie balance for prevention of weight gain, and proponents of some low-carbohydrate diet regimens have suggested that the increasing obesity may be attributed, in part, to low-fat, high-carbohydrate diets. OBJECTIVES To report(More)
Healthy lifestyle behaviors are recommended to reduce cancer risk and overall mortality. Adherence to cancer-preventive health behaviors and subsequent cancer risk has not been evaluated in a diverse sample of postmenopausal women. We examined the association between the American Cancer Society (ACS) Nutrition and Physical Activity Cancer Prevention(More)
Mechanistic associations between obesity and colorectal cancer remain unclear. In this study, we investigated whether adipokines are risk factors for colorectal cancer and whether they may mediate its association with obesity. In a case-cohort study nested within the Women's Health Initiative cohort of postmenopausal women, baseline plasma samples from 457(More)
BACKGROUND Triple-negative breast cancer, characterized by a lack of hormone receptor and HER2 expression, is associated with a particularly poor prognosis. Focusing on potentially modifiable breast cancer risk factors, we examined the relationship between body size, physical activity, and triple-negative disease risk. METHODS Using data from 155,723(More)
CONTEXT Isolated soy protein reduces plasma concentrations of total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. OBJECTIVE To identify the agent(s) responsible for the cholesterol-lowering effect of soy in mildly hypercholesterolemic volunteers: isoflavones isolated together with soy protein or soy protein itself. DESIGN Double-blind randomized(More)
CONTEXT Observational studies and polyp recurrence trials are not conclusive regarding the effects of a low-fat dietary pattern on risk of colorectal cancer, necessitating a primary prevention trial. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of a low-fat eating pattern on risk of colorectal cancer in postmenopausal women. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS The(More)
CONTEXT The hypothesis that a low-fat dietary pattern can reduce breast cancer risk has existed for decades but has never been tested in a controlled intervention trial. OBJECTIVE To assess the effects of undertaking a low-fat dietary pattern on breast cancer incidence. DESIGN AND SETTING A randomized, controlled, primary prevention trial conducted at(More)