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The Midichloriaceae is a novel family of the order Rickettsiales, that encompasses intracellular bacteria associated with hard ticks (Ixodidae) and other arthropods. The most intensively investigated member of this family is Midichloria mitochondrii, a symbiotic bacterium of the sheep tick Ixodes ricinus, characterized by the capacity of multiplying inside(More)
Human cystic echinococcosis is a chronic, complex and neglected infection. Its clinical management has evolved over decades without adequate evaluation of efficacy. Recent expert opinion recommends that uncomplicated inactive cysts of the liver should be left untreated and solely monitored over time ("watch-and-wait" approach). However, clinical data(More)
Molecular methods are important tools in the diagnosis of bloodstream bacterial infections, in particular in patients treated with antimicrobial therapy, due to their quick turn-around time. Here we describe a new broad-range real-time PCR targeting the 23S rDNA gene and capable to detect as low as 10 plasmid copies per reaction of targeted bacterial 23S(More)
Cystic echinococcosis (CE), a worldwide zoonosis, is highly endemic in southern and eastern Europe. Its actual prevalence is unknown due to the lack of efficient reporting systems designed to take into account the particular features of the disease. Neglect of CE makes diagnosis and clinical management difficult outside referral centres, with(More)
Wolbachiaendosymbiotic bacteria are capable of inducing chronic upregulation of insect immune genes in some situations and this phenotype may influence the transmission of important insect-borne pathogens. However the molecules involved in these interactions have not been characterized. Here we show that recombinant Wolbachia Surface Protein (WSP)(More)
Midichloria mitochondrii is an intracellular bacterium found in the hard tick Ixodes ricinus. In this arthropod, M. mitochondrii is observed in the oocytes and in other cells of the ovary, where the symbiont is present in the cell cytoplasm and inside the mitochondria. No studies have so far investigated whether M. mitochondrii is present in the salivary(More)
According to Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, the Rickettsiales are '…bacteria with typical gram-negative cell walls and no flagella'. The recently sequenced genome of 'Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii', a divergent lineage within the order Rickettsiales capable of invading mitochondria in ixodid ticks, revealed the presence of 26 putative(More)
The diagnosis of hepatic cystic echinococcosis is based on ultrasonography and confirmed by serology. However, no biological marker of cyst viability is currently available implying years-long patient follow-up, which is not always feasible in endemic areas. We characterized the performance of an immunoblotting test based on human hydatid cyst fluid with(More)
BACKGROUND Liver fibrosis is accelerated in patients co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C viruses. AIMS We investigated the correlation between liver fibrosis, immune activation and microbial translocation. METHODS This cross-sectional study included patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)(More)