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OBJECTIVES To describe the use of second-line protease-inhibitor regimens in Médecins Sans Frontières HIV programmes, and determine switch rates, clinical outcomes, and factors associated with survival. DESIGN/METHODS We used patient data from 62 Médecins Sans Frontières programmes and included all antiretroviral therapy-naive adults (> 15 years) at the(More)
BACKGROUND The retention of patients in antiretroviral therapy (ART) programmes is an important issue in resource-limited settings. Loss to follow up can be substantial, but it is unclear what the outcomes are in patients who are lost to programmes. METHODS AND FINDINGS We searched the PubMed, EMBASE, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences(More)
BACKGROUND The contemporary associations of type 2 diabetes with a wide range of incident cardiovascular diseases have not been compared. We aimed to study associations between type 2 diabetes and 12 initial manifestations of cardiovascular disease. METHODS We used linked primary care, hospital admission, disease registry, and death certificate records(More)
OBJECTIVES To ascertain the outcome of pre-Antiretroviral therapy (ART) and ART patients defaulting from care and investigate reasons for defaulting. METHODS Patients defaulting from HIV care in Chiradzulu between July 2004 and September 2007 were traced at last known home address. Deaths and moves were recorded, and patients found alive were interviewed.(More)
CONTEXT Long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART) use in resource-limited countries leads to increasing numbers of patients with HIV taking second-line therapy. Limited access to further therapeutic options makes essential the evaluation of second-line regimen efficacy in these settings. OBJECTIVES To investigate failure rates in patients receiving(More)
OBJECTIVE We investigated the association between immune response and mortality in four HIV African programs supported by Médecins Sans Frontières. DESIGN Multicentric retrospective cohort study. METHODS All antiretroviral therapy (ART) naive adults (>15 years) who initiated therapy between March 2001 and November 2010 and receiving therapy for 9 months(More)
BACKGROUND The contemporary associations of type 2 diabetes with a wide range of incident cardiovascular diseases have not been compared. Previous studies have focussed on myocardial infarction and stroke, and these conditions are the usual outcomes chosen in clinical trials in type 2 diabetes, but other diseases such as heart failure and angina are also(More)
BACKGROUND The associations of blood pressure with the different manifestations of incident cardiovascular disease in a contemporary population have not been compared. In this study, we aimed to analyse the associations of blood pressure with 12 different presentations of cardiovascular disease. METHODS We used linked electronic health records from 1997(More)
BACKGROUND There is evidence of higher prevalence of asthma in populations of lower socio-economic status in affluent societies, and the prevalence of asthma is also very high in some Latin American countries, where societies are characterized by a marked inequality in wealth. This study aimed to examine the relationship between estimates of asthma(More)
BACKGROUND In high-income countries, viral load is routinely measured to detect failure of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and guide switching to second-line ART. Viral load monitoring is not generally available in resource-limited settings. We examined switching from nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based first-line regimens to protease(More)