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BACKGROUND The retention of patients in antiretroviral therapy (ART) programmes is an important issue in resource-limited settings. Loss to follow up can be substantial, but it is unclear what the outcomes are in patients who are lost to programmes. METHODS AND FINDINGS We searched the PubMed, EMBASE, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences(More)
BACKGROUND The contemporary associations of type 2 diabetes with a wide range of incident cardiovascular diseases have not been compared. We aimed to study associations between type 2 diabetes and 12 initial manifestations of cardiovascular disease. METHODS We used linked primary care, hospital admission, disease registry, and death certificate records(More)
BACKGROUND The associations of blood pressure with the different manifestations of incident cardiovascular disease in a contemporary population have not been compared. In this study, we aimed to analyse the associations of blood pressure with 12 different presentations of cardiovascular disease. METHODS We used linked electronic health records from 1997(More)
BACKGROUND In high-income countries, viral load is routinely measured to detect failure of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and guide switching to second-line ART. Viral load monitoring is not generally available in resource-limited settings. We examined switching from nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based first-line regimens to protease(More)
BACKGROUND Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has the highest burden of HIV in the world and a rising prevalence of cardiometabolic disease; however, the interrelationship between HIV, antiretroviral therapy (ART) and cardiometabolic traits is not well described in SSA populations. METHODS We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis through MEDLINE and(More)
BACKGROUND Little is known about immunovirological treatment outcomes and adherence in HIV/AIDS patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) treated using a simplified management approach in rural areas of developing countries, or about the main factors influencing those outcomes in clinical practice. METHODS Cross-sectional immunovirological,(More)
OBJECTIVE We describe medium-term outcomes for young children receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited countries. METHODS Analyses were conducted on surveillance data for children <5 years of age receiving ART (initiated April 2002 to January 2008) in 48 HIV/AIDS treatment programs in Africa and Asia. Primary outcome measures were(More)
BACKGROUND Given the recent declines in heart attack and stroke incidence, it is unclear how women and men differ in first lifetime presentations of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). We compared the incidence of 12 cardiac, cerebrovascular, and peripheral vascular diseases in women and men at different ages. METHODS AND RESULTS We studied 1 937 360 people,(More)
BACKGROUND Recent experimental evidence suggests that socioeconomic characteristics of neighbourhoods influence cardiovascular health, but observational studies which examine deprivation across a wide range of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are lacking. METHODS Record-linkage cohort study of 1.93 million people to examine the association between(More)
BACKGROUND In sub-Saharan Africa, men living with HIV often start ART at more advanced stages of disease and have higher early mortality than women. We investigated gender difference in long-term immune reconstitution. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Antiretroviral-naïve adults who received ART for at least 9 months in four HIV programs in sub-Saharan Africa(More)