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In cultured oligodendrocytes isolated from perinatal rat optic nerves, we have analyzed the expression of ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits as well as the effect of the activation of these receptors on oligodendrocyte viability. Reverse transcription-PCR, in combination with immunocytochemistry, demonstrated that most oligodendrocytes differentiated in(More)
Recent studies indicate that oligodendrocytes are vulnerable to excitotoxic insults mediated by glutamate receptors. The present study was carried out to characterize the type of glutamate receptors triggering cell death in optic nerve oligodendrocyte cultures. Acute activation of either AMPA or kainate receptors was toxic to oligodendrocytes, an effect(More)
Amyloid beta (Abeta) oligomers accumulate in brain tissue of Alzheimer disease patients and are related to pathogenesis. The precise mechanisms by which Abeta oligomers cause neurotoxicity remain unresolved. In this study, we investigated the role of ionotropic glutamate receptors on the intracellular Ca2+ overload caused by Abeta. Using rat cortical(More)
To investigate the role of glutamate transport in non-synaptic glia, we characterized the expression of three major glutamate transporters (EAAC1, GLAST and GLT-1) in rat optic nerve in situ using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in combination with Western blot and immunochemistry with specific antibodies. GLAST was localized to(More)
Oligodendrocytes are vulnerable to excitotoxic signals mediated by AMPA receptors and by high- and low-affinity kainate receptors. Here we investigated the nature of the cell death triggered by activation of these receptors in primary cultures of oligodendrocytes from the rat optic nerve. Activation of AMPA receptors at both submaximal and maximal(More)
Excitotoxicity results from prolonged activation of glutamate receptors expressed by cells in the central nervous system (CNS). This cell death mechanism was first discovered in retinal ganglion cells and subsequently in brain neurons. In addition, it has been recently observed that CNS glial cells can also undergo excitotoxicity. Among them,(More)
Oligodendrocytes are vulnerable to excitotoxic insults mediated by AMPA receptors and by low and high affinity kainate receptors, a feature that is dependent on Ca(2+) influx. In the current study, we have analyzed the intracellular concentration of calcium [Ca(2+)](i) as well as the entry routes of this cation, upon activation of these receptors. Selective(More)
Neurotoxic effects of amyloid β peptides are mediated through deregulation of intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis and signaling, but relatively little is known about amyloid β modulation of Ca(2+) homeostasis and its pathological influence on glia. Here, we found that amyloid β oligomers caused a cytoplasmic Ca(2+) increase in cultured astrocytes, which was(More)
Elevated levels of extracellular glutamate cause excitotoxic oligodendrocyte cell death and contribute to progressive oligodendrocyte loss and demyelination in white matter disorders such as multiple sclerosis and periventricular leukomalacia. However, the mechanism by which glutamate homeostasis is altered in such conditions remains elusive. We show here(More)
Oligodendrocytes, the myelinating cells of CNS axons, are highly vulnerable to excitotoxic signals mediated by glutamate receptors of the AMPA and kainate classes. Receptors in these cells are commonly activated by glutamate that is released from axons and glial cells. In addition, oligodendrocytes contribute to the control of extracellular glutamate levels(More)