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Ancient DNA extracts consist of a mixture of endogenous molecules and contaminant DNA templates, often originating from environmental microbes. These two populations of templates exhibit different chemical characteristics, with the former showing depurination and cytosine deamination by-products, resulting from post-mortem DNA damage. Such chemical(More)
Histological analyses of fossil bones have provided clues on the growth patterns and life history traits of several extinct vertebrates that would be unavailable for classical morphological studies. We analyzed the bone histology of Hipparion to infer features of its life history traits and growth pattern. Microscope analysis of thin sections of a large(More)
The paper on South American horse DNA is very interesting but the conclusions are very surprising. In our opinion, the results need a more exhaustive review and new analyses to be done because the material used in the study belongs to the genus Hippidion and not to the subgenus Equus (Amerhippus). Orlando et al. 2003 conclude that the samples belong to(More)
The rich fossil record of the family Equidae (Mammalia: Perissodactyla) over the past 55 MY has made it an icon for the patterns and processes of macroevolution. Despite this, many aspects of equid phylogenetic relationships and taxonomy remain unresolved. Recent genetic analyses of extinct equids have revealed unexpected evolutionary patterns and a need(More)
Hippidions are past members of the equid lineage which appeared in the South American fossil record around 2.5 Ma but then became extinct during the great late Pleistocene megafaunal extinction. According to fossil records and numerous dental, cranial, and postcranial characters, Hippidion and Equus lineages were expected to cluster in two distinct(More)
Climatic and environmental shifts have had profound impacts on faunal and floral assemblages globally since the end of the Miocene. We explore the regional expression of these fluctuations in southwestern Europe by constructing long-term records (from ~11.1 to 0.8 Ma, late Miocene-middle Pleistocene) of carbon and oxygen isotope variations in tooth enamel(More)
Expansion of C4 grasses during Late Miocene and Early Pliocene constitutes one of the most remarkable biotic events of the Cenozoic era. The Teruel–Alfambra region (northeastern Spain) contains one of the most complete Miocene–Pliocene sequences of mammalian fossil sites in the world. In this study, stable isotope (δ 13C and δ 18O) analyses have been(More)
The Plio–Pleistocene carnivores from the North-Western Mediterranean (Iberian and Italian peninsulas, and France) are analysed in order to investigate whether their diversity over the last 5.3 Ma was influenced by disturbances of the physical environment. Trends in species diversity over time were analysed in successive unequal time intervals, which were(More)
Hippidions were equids with very distinctive anatomical features. They lived in South America 2.5 million years ago (Ma) until their extinction approximately 10 000 years ago. The evolutionary origin of the three known Hippidion morphospecies is still disputed. Based on palaeontological data, Hippidion could have diverged from the lineage leading to modern(More)
Stable isotope ratios (13C/12C and 18O/16O) in fossil teeth and bone provide key archives for understanding the ecology of extinct horses during the Plio-Pleistocene in South America; however, what happened in areas of sympatry between Equus (Amerhippus) and Hippidion is less understood. Here, we use stable carbon and oxygen isotopes preserved in 67 fossil(More)