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The Rey-Osterrieth complex figure (ROCF) and the free and cued selective reminding test (FCSRT) are frequently used in clinical practice. The ROCF assesses visual perception, constructional praxis, and visuospatial memory, and the FCSRT assesses verbal learning and memory. As part of the Spanish Normative Studies (NEURONORMA), we provide age- and(More)
This paper describes the methods and sample characteristics of a series of Spanish normative studies (The NEURONORMA project). The primary objective of our research was to collect normative and psychometric information on a sample of people aged over 49 years. The normative information was based on a series of selected, but commonly used, neuropsychological(More)
Lexical fluency tests are frequently used in clinical practice to assess language and executive function. As part of the Spanish multicenter normative studies (NEURONORMA project), we provide age- and education-adjusted norms for three semantic fluency tasks (animals, fruit and vegetables, and kitchen tools), three formal lexical tasks (words beginning with(More)
We studied the validity of a complete (S-IQCODE) and a shortened (SS- IQCODE) Spanish version of the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE) for the diagnosis of dementia in a clinical setting. Fifty-three consecutive outpatients were assessed with an extensive workup and followed up for 6 months in a specialized clinic for the(More)
As clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease is only 80%-90% accurate, there is a need to identify biochemical markers of Alzheimer's disease. Previous studies have shown an abnormality in the glycosylation of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the CSF collected postmortem from patients with Alzheimer's disease. This abnormality was very specific for(More)
Recent studies indicate that patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) exhibit an immune dysfunction at the central and peripheral levels. We have studied the concentration of IL-1 beta in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with AD, multi-infarct dementia (MID), normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH), and multiple sclerosis (MS). CSF IL-1 beta levels were(More)
As part of the NEURONORMA project, we provide age- and education-adjusted norms for the Stroop color-word interference test (SCWT)-Golden version and the Tower of London-Drexel University version (TOL(DX)). The sample consists of 344 and 347 participants, respectively, who are cognitively normal, community dwelling, and ranging in age from 50 to 90 years.(More)
OBJECTIVES To elucidate whether any relationship exists between genetic acetylator polymorphism and the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease. METHODS Acetylator polymorphism has been determined, using sulphamethazine, in 54 patients with Alzheimer's disease or senile dementia of Alzheimer type and in 93 age-matched controls. RESULTS Thirty-one(More)
A number of biomarkers (e.g. Abeta, tau) has been identified in Alzheimer's disease CSF. However, none fulfils the criteria of sensitivity and specificity (> 80%) needed for the development of an accurate diagnostic test. The lack of a suitable marker has prompted the search for new CSF biomarkers. In this study, the glycosylation of CSF proteins was(More)
BACKGROUND Available screening tests for dementia are of limited usefulness because they are influenced by the patient's culture and educational level. The Eurotest, an instrument based on the knowledge and handling of money, was designed to overcome these limitations. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the Eurotest in(More)