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Directed fusion of transmitter-laden vesicles enables rapid intercellular signaling in the central nervous system and occurs at synapses within gray matter. Here we show that action potentials also induce the release of glutamate from axons in the corpus callosum, a white matter region responsible for interhemispheric communication. Callosal axons release(More)
The effects of two training programmes in 20 Andalusian and 12 Anglo-Arabian horses were evaluated by an increasing intensity work test at velocities of 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 m sec(-1). Heart rate was monitored and blood samples were drawn at rest and after each velocity to analyse packed cell volume, haemoglobin concentration, plasma lactate and potassium(More)
The cardiovascular and metabolic response to two cross-country events (CC*: preliminary level and CC*** advanced level) were analysed in 8 male eventing horses (4 Anglo-Hunter and 4 Anglo-Arabian). This study focused on the establishment of the main metabolic pathways involved in the muscle energy resynthesis during the competitions. Heart rate (HR) was(More)
Background. Persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) has been demonstrated to be the necessary causal factor for developing cervical cancer. To know the most prevalent HR-HPV in different geographical areas is important to design diagnostic tests and implementation of vaccines. Objectives. The goal of this study is to evaluate the(More)
The physiological and metabolic adaptations to exercise of the Andalusian horse seem to differ slightly from those found in other breeds. The authors studied the locomotor adaptation of 18 Andalusian horses to a training programme in relation to anaerobic energy metabolism, efficacy of the training programme, and changes associated with the onset of(More)
We hypothesized that the information obtained from a discriminant analysis could be used to objectively discriminate horses untrained from early ages, in agreement with certain physiological characteristics. In the biopsies of 24 Spanish Pure Bred horses (1.5-3 years old) before and after a standardized exercise test (SET; 4-7 m/s with a change of velocity(More)
We provide the first reference values of the plasma biochemistry and haematology of Palaearctic coots of the genus Fulica. We analysed blood samples from 29 birds of the threatened crested coot Fulica cristata reared in captivity and 21 common coots, Fulica atra, from a wild environment. We report haematocrit levels, leucocyte formula, metabolites (uric(More)
Neuronal damage after stroke-associated brain hypoxia is a leading cause of long-term disability and death. The refractoriness to therapeutic strategies for neuroprotection after 3 h post brain ischemia is poorly understood. P-glycoprotein (P-gp), the multidrug resistance gene (MDR-1) product is normally expressed at blood-brain-barrier. P-gp neuronal(More)
Serotonin 1A (5HT1A) receptor agonists have shown neuroprotective properties in different models of central nervous system injury. Activation of neuronal 5HT1A receptors appears to be involved in the neuroprotective effects. It remains to be elucidated if astroglial cells are responsive to the 5HT1A neuroprotective effects. The participation of astroglial(More)