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Free ammonium ions are produced and consumed during cell metabolism. Glutamine synthetase utilizes free ammonium ions to produce glutamine in the cytosol whereas glutaminase and glutamate dehydrogenase generate free ammonium ions in the mitochondria from glutamine and glutamate, respectively. Ammonia and bicarbonate are condensed in the liver mitochondria(More)
Peripheral resistance to insulin action is the major mechanism causing the metabolic syndrome and eventually type 2 diabetes mellitus. The metabolic derangement associated with insulin resistance is extensive and not restricted to carbohydrates. The branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are particularly responsive to the inhibitory insulin action on amino acid(More)
Cerebral edema is a potentially life-threatening complication shared by diseases of different etiology, such as diabetic ketoacidosis, acute liver failure, high altitude exposure, dialysis disequilibrium syndrome, and salicylate intoxication. Pulmonary edema is also habitually present in these disorders, indicating that the microcirculatory disturbance(More)
The modern Western-type diet is deficient in fruits and vegetables and contains excessive animal products, generating the accumulation of non-metabolizable anions and a lifespan state of overlooked metabolic acidosis, whose magnitude increases progressively with aging due to the physiological decline in kidney function. In response to this state of(More)
Microalbuminuria has been conclusively established as an independent cardiovascular risk factor, and there is evidence of an association between insulin resistance and microalbuminuria, the former preceding the latter in prospective studies. It has been demonstrated that even the slightest degree of metabolic acidosis produces insulin resistance in healthy(More)
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