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OBJECTIVES Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) has demonstrated therapeutic effects in arthritis by inhibiting both innate and acquired immune responses. We investigated the potential effects of VIP in the regulation of Toll-like receptor (TLR) expression and function in synovial fibroblasts from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The proteasome inhibitor model of Parkinson's disease (PD) appears to reproduce many of the important behavioural, imaging, pathological and biochemical features of the human disease. However, the mechanisms involved in the lactacystin-induced, mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway remain poorly defined. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH We(More)
Despite the increasing knowledge of Alzheimer's disease (AD) management with novel pharmacologic agents, most of them are only transiently fixing symptomatic pathology. Currently there is rapid growth in the field of neuroprotective pharmacology and increasing focus on the involvement of mitochondria in this devastating disease. This review is directed at(More)
Apoptosis is an active process that is regulated by different signalling pathways. One of the more important organelles involved in apoptosis regulation is the mitochondrion. Electron chain transport disruption increases free radical production leading to multiple conductance channel opening, release of cytochrome c and caspase activation. This death(More)
The role of CB2 cannabinoid receptors in the behavioral and neurochemical changes induced by intracaudate administration of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) was evaluated. 6-OHDA (12 μg/4 μL) or its vehicle was injected in the caudate-putamen (CPu) of mice overexpressing the CB2 cannabinoid receptor (CB2xP) and wild type (WT) mice. Motor impairment, emotional(More)
Our results provide evidence that 6-hydroxydopamine induced, after auto-oxidation, toxic levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) that caused bovine chromaffin cell toxicity and death. 6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) treatment markedly reduced, in a dose-response fashion, chromaffin cell viability. Cell death was accompanied by cell shrinkage, nuclear condensation and(More)
Background: The recruitment of lymphocytes to secondary lymphoid organs relies on interactions of circulating cells with high endothelial venules (HEV). HEV are exclusive to these organs under physiological conditions, but they can develop in chronically-inflamed tissues. The interaction of L-selectin on lymphocytes with sulfated glycoprotein ligands on HEV(More)
We demonstrate that Tc45, a polypeptide described as an immunogenetically restricted Trypanosoma cruzi antigen in mice, is calreticulin, a dimorphic molecule encoded by genes with variable chromosomal distribution. Previously we showed that IgG from A.SW (H2s) mice immunized with T. cruzi trypomastigotes or epimastigotes and sera from infected humans(More)
INTRODUCTION After cerebral ischemia, necrotic cell death occurs specially for neurons, mainly due to the deprivation of oxygen and glucose. Cell necrosis triggers the activation of the immune system followed by an inflammatory response. This reaction is characterized by the activation of astrocytes and microglia together with the infiltration of peripheral(More)