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SETTING Santiago, Chile, has a mean annual tuberculosis (TB) rate of 13 per 100 000 population; however, TB incidence in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals is at least 20 times higher. OBJECTIVE To assess the accuracy of rapid molecular testing for pulmonary TB (PTB) detection in routine care in HIV-infected patients. DESIGN(More)
In the context of tuberculosis (TB) resurgence, isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) is increasingly promoted, but concerns about the risk for development of isoniazid-resistant tuberculosis may hinder its widespread implementation. We conducted a systematic review of data published since 1951 to assess the effect of primary IPT on the risk for(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare the performance of two tests for diagnosing latent tuberculosis (TB) infection in the HIV-positive population in Chile, in order to better identify the subjects who might benefit from TB chemoprophylaxis. DESIGN This was a cross-sectional study among individuals attending three HIV outpatient clinics in Santiago, tested with a 2-TU(More)
We report a case of scrub typhus in a 54-year-old man who was bitten by several terrestrial leeches during a trip to Chiloé Island in southern Chile in 2006. A molecular sample, identified as related to Orientia tsutsugamushi based on the sequence of the16S rRNA gene, was obtained from a biopsy specimen of the eschar on the patient's leg. Serologic analysis(More)
BACKGROUND Genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (cMtb) allows us to know geographically predominant lineages. Some lineages spread more rapidly and are associated with multidrug resistance, particularly Beijing, which has been reported in Latin America (Peru). There is little information about this topic in Chile and there are no reports of the(More)
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a significant public health problem worldwide, but the ecology of the prevalent mycobacterial strains, and their transmission, can vary depending on country and region. Chile is a country with low incidence of TB, that has a geographically isolated location in relation to the rest of South American countries due to the Andes(More)
BACKGROUND It is currently unknown which is the prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection in healthcare workers in Chile, but this group has been described as at higher risk of developing active tuberculosis than general population. OBJECTIVES To determine the prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection in a sample of healthcare workers from at risk(More)
BACKGROUND Tuberculosis (TB) in Chile is reaching the elimination phase; however, in HIV positive individuals the incidence of TB in still very high. AIM To describe the association between TB and HIV in different geographical regions in Chile, and to determine the association between TB and HIV/AIDS mortality. PATIENTS AND METHODS A retrospective study(More)
SETTING Xpert® MTB/RIF is the most widely used molecular assay for rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB). The number of polymerase chain reaction cycles after which detectable product is generated (cycle threshold value, CT) correlates with the bacillary burden.OBJECTIVE To investigate the association between Xpert CT values and smear status through a(More)
BACKGROUND The incidence and epidemiological profile of tuberculosis (TB) has changed significantly in the recent years in Chile. AIM To evaluate the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of TB cases diagnosed in the last decade at a university hospital in Santiago. MATERIAL AND METHODS The Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture registry of the(More)