María Elena Santolaya

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BACKGROUND The epidemiology of candidemia varies depending on the geographic region. Little is known about the epidemiology of candidemia in Latin America. METHODS We conducted a 24-month laboratory-based survey of candidemia in 20 centers of seven Latin American countries. Incidence rates were calculated and the epidemiology of candidemia was(More)
BACKGROUND Effective glycoconjugate vaccines against Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y have been developed, but serogroup B remains a major cause of severe invasive disease in infants and adolescents worldwide. We assessed immunogenicity and tolerability of a four-component vaccine (4CMenB) in adolescents. METHODS We did a randomised,(More)
PURPOSE To develop an evidence-based guideline for the empiric management of pediatric fever and neutropenia (FN). METHODS The International Pediatric Fever and Neutropenia Guideline Panel is a multidisciplinary and multinational group composed of experts in pediatric oncology and infectious disease as well as a patient advocate. The Panel was convened(More)
BACKGROUND Rotavirus and more recently norovirus have been recognized as 2 of the most common causes of acute diarrhea in children. Comparative analysis of these infections in a birth cohort has not been performed and can provide relevant insight on clinical and viral behaviors. METHODS Mother-infant pairs from middle-low socioeconomic background living(More)
To determine whether Pneumocystis carinii is associated with clinical illness in the competent host, 107 normal, healthy infants were enrolled in a 2-year prospective cohort study in Chile. P. carinii was identified by specific stains and nested--deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) amplification of the large subunit mitochondrial ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene of(More)
PURPOSE To identify clinical and laboratory parameters present at the time of a first evaluation that could help predict which children with cancer, fever, and neutropenia were at high risk or low risk for an invasive bacterial infection. PATIENTS AND METHODS Over a 17-month period, all children with cancer, fever, and neutropenia admitted to five(More)
A risk prediction model for invasive bacterial infection (IBI) was prospectively evaluated among children presenting with cancer, fever, and neutropenia. The model incorporated assessment of 5 previously identified risk factors: serum level of C-reactive protein (CRP) >/=90 mg/L, hypotension, identification of relapse of leukemia as the cancer type,(More)
BACKGROUND Acute otitis media (AOM) is a main cause for antimicrobial prescription in Latin America. Pathogen diversity in different geographic regions underscores the need for updated knowledge on AOM microbiology. AIM To prospectively determine the role of bacteria and viruses in Chilean children with AOM. METHODS Between July, 1998, and June, 1999,(More)
INTRODUCTION Neisseria meningitidis invasive disease is a major public health problem. Pharyngeal carriage is considered a prerequisite for invasive infection. Prevalence reaches 10% in general population and up to 30% in the 20-24 years age group. The aim of this study was to asses pharyngeal carriage prevalence in healthy subjects aged 18-24 years, and as(More)
PURPOSE To compare outcome and cost of ambulatory versus hospitalized management among febrile neutropenic children at low risk for invasive bacterial infection (IBI). PATIENTS AND METHODS Children presenting with febrile neutropenia at six hospitals in Santiago, Chile, were categorized as high or low risk for IBI. Low-risk children were randomly assigned(More)