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Leishmania infantum (syn. L. chagasi) is the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the New World (NW) with endemic regions extending from southern USA to northern Argentina. The two hypotheses about the origin of VL in the NW suggest (1) recent importation of L. infantum from the Old World (OW), or (2) an indigenous origin and a distinct(More)
BACKGROUND Rhodnius prolixus is the main vector of Chagas disease in Venezuela. Here, domestic infestations of poor quality rural housing have persisted despite four decades of vector control. This is in contrast to the Southern Cone region of South America, where the main vector, Triatoma infestans, has been eliminated over large areas. The repeated(More)
As part of an epidemiological study in an old focus of American Visceral Leishmaniasis (AVL) in Venezuela (Guayabita, Aragua State), a longitudinal entomological survey (January 1993-June 1994) was carried out. A total of 3,239 males and 6,043 females belonging to 11 phlebotomine sandfly species were collected. The two recognised vectors of AVL in the New(More)
Lutzomyia longipalpis, a sibling complex, is the main vector of Leishmania chagasi/infantum. Discriminating between siblings is important as they may differ in vectorial capacity. Lutzomyia longipalpis populations display distinct male sex pheromone chemotypes. We investigated the phylogeographic pattern of variation at microsatellite loci from 11(More)
Chagas disease is an endemic zoonosis native to the Americas and is caused by the kinetoplastid protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. The parasite is also highly genetically diverse, with six discrete typing units (DTUs) reported TcI - TcVI. These DTUs broadly correlate with several epidemiogical, ecological and pathological features of Chagas disease. In(More)
Lutzomyia pseudolongipalpis, the first new sand fly species within the longipalpis complex, is described based on females and males from La Rinconada, Curarigua, Lara State, Venezuela. Similar to Lutzomyia longipalpis sensu lato, females of the new species show spermathecae with 8-10 annulations and cibarial armature with 8-12 horizontal teeth. However, L.(More)
The existence of Rhodnius robustus as a species distinct from Rhodnius prolixus has long been the main epidemiological question about Chagas disease transmission in Venezuela and surrounding countries. These two taxa are morphologically and genetically very similar, but only R. prolixus is assumed to colonize houses and transmit Chagas disease to humans. R.(More)
The report of a new autochthonous case of human American Visceral Leishmaniasis (AVL) in 1992 in the village of Guayabita, Aragua State, Venezuela (10 degrees 16'N, 67 degrees 28'W; 500 m asl), led us to undertake an epidemiological study in this locality. A demographic survey was conducted using a structured questionnaire in which data was collected(More)
Antennal sensilla patterns were used to analyze population variation of domestic Rhodnius prolixus from six departments and states representing three biogeographical regions of Colombia and Venezuela. Discriminant analysis of the patterns of mechanoreceptors and of three types of chemoreceptors on the pedicel and flagellar segments showed clear(More)
Since the description of Lutzomyia longipalpis by Lutz and Neiva more than 100 years ago, much has been written in the scientific literature about this phlebotomine species. Soares and Turco (2003) and Lainson and Rangel (2005) have written extensive reviews focused on vector-host-parasite interactions and American visceral leishmaniasis ecology. However,(More)