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Thrombin activates platelets by binding and cleaving protease-activated receptors 1 and 4 (PAR1 and PAR4). Because of the importance of PAR4 activation on platelets in humans and mice and emerging roles for PAR4 in other tissues, experiments were done to characterize the interaction between PAR4 homodimers. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation and(More)
The autoinhibition/activation of the PMCA (plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase) involves conformational changes in the membrane region of the protein that affect the amount of lipids directly associated with the transmembrane domain. The lipid-protein-dependence of PMCA isoforms 2 and 4 expressed and obtained in purified form from Saccharomyces cerevisiae was(More)
In this work, we set out to identify and characterize the calcium occluded intermediate(s) of the plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase (PMCA) to study the mechanism of calcium transport. To this end, we developed a procedure for measuring the occlusion of Ca(2+) in microsomes containing PMCA. This involves a system for overexpression of the PMCA and the use of a(More)
Thrombin activates platelets through protease activated receptors (PARs). Mouse platelets express PAR3 and PAR4. PAR3 does not signal in platelets. However, PAR4 is a relatively poor thrombin substrate and requires PAR3 as a cofactor at low thrombin concentrations. In this study we show that PAR3 also regulates PAR4 signaling. In response to thrombin(More)
Thrombin is a potent platelet agonist that activates platelets and other cells of the cardiovascular system by cleaving its G-protein-coupled receptors, protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1), PAR4, or both. We now show that cleaving PAR1 and PAR4 with α-thrombin induces heterodimer formation. PAR1-PAR4 heterodimers were not detected when unstimulated;(More)
The ZntB Zn(2+) efflux system is important for maintenance of Zn(2+) homeostasis in Enterobacteria. We report crystal structures of ZntB cytoplasmic domains from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (StZntB) in dimeric and physiologically relevant homopentameric forms at 2.3 Å and 3.1 Å resolutions, respectively. The funnel-like structure is similar to(More)
Rat liver and Trypanosoma cruzi tyrosine aminotransferases (TATs) share over 40% sequence identity, but differ in their substrate specificities. To explore the molecular features related to these differences, comparative mutagenesis studies were conducted on full length T. cruzi TAT and N-terminally truncated rat TAT recombinant enzymes. The functionality(More)
Telomeres are nucleoprotein complexes that reside at the ends of linear chromosomes and help maintain genomic integrity. Protection of telomeres 1 (POT1) and TPP1 are telomere-specific proteins that bind as a heterodimer to single-stranded telomere DNA to prevent illicit DNA damage responses and to enhance telomerase-mediated telomere extension. Telomere(More)
The in vivo study of protease activated receptors (PARs) in platelets is complicated due to species specific expression profiles. Human platelets express PAR1 and PAR4 whereas mouse platelets express PAR3 and PAR4. Further, PAR subtypes interact with one another to influence activation and signaling. The goal of the current study was to generate mice(More)