María Alma Bracho

Learn More
The genetic diversity of a vesicular stomatitis virus population was analysed by RT-PCR, cloning and sequencing of two approximately 500 nucleotide regions of the virus genome. PCR amplifications were performed in parallel experiments with both Taq and Pfu DNA polymerases, and important differences were observed. Between 10 and 22 mutations were detected(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection affects about 3% of the human population. Phylogenetic analyses have grouped its variants into six major genotypes, which have a star-like distribution and several minor subtypes. The most abundant genotype in Europe is the so-called genotype 1, with two prevalent subtypes, 1a and 1b. In order to explain the higher(More)
BACKGROUND No recognized risk factors can be identified in 10-40% of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients suggesting that the modes of transmission involved could be underestimated or unidentified. Invasive diagnostic procedures, such as endoscopy, have been considered as a potential HCV transmission route; although the actual extent of transmission in(More)
This report evaluates the June 2008 onychomadesis outbreak in Valencia, Spain. The study sample consisted of 221 onychomadesis cases and 77 nonaffected individuals who lived close to those affected. We collected data on dietary variables, hygiene products, and individual pathological histories. Feces and blood specimens were collected from 44 cases and 24(More)
Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), a common disease caused by enteroviruses (EVs), usually affects children. Clustered and sporadic HFMD cases, followed by onychomadesis (nail shedding), occurred during summer and fall 2008 in Valencia, Spain. Fecal samples from onychomadesis patients, who did or did not have previous HFMD, and from healthy children(More)
Molecular phylogenetic analyses are used increasingly in the epidemiological investigation of outbreaks and transmission cases involving rapidly evolving RNA viruses. Here, we present the results of such an analysis that contributed to the conviction of an anesthetist as being responsible for the infection of 275 of his patients with hepatitis C virus. We(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a Flavivirus with a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genome of about 9,600 nucleotides. It is a major cause of liver disease, infecting almost 200 million people all over the world. Similarly to most RNA viruses, HCV displays very high levels of genetic diversity which have been used to differentiate six major genotypes and(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of liver disease worldwide and a potential cause of substantial morbidity and mortality in the future. HCV is characterized by a high level of genetic heterogeneity. Although homologous recombination has been demonstrated in many members of the family Flaviviridae, to which HCV belongs, there are only a few studies(More)
BACKGROUND Current treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has limited efficacy -especially among genotype 1 infected patients-, is costly, and involves severe side effects. Thus, predicting non-response is of major interest for both patient wellbeing and health care expense. At present, treatment cannot be individualized on the basis of any(More)
Molecular phylogenetic analyses are frequently used in epidemiologic testing, although only occasionally in forensics. Their acceptability is hampered by a lack of statistical confidence in the conclusions. However, maximum likelihood testing provides a sound statistical framework for the testing of phylogenetic hypotheses relevant for forensic analysis. We(More)